(Ibrahim Giritlioglu, 2014) The aim of this study was threefold: first, to develop an instrument to evaluate food and beverage service quality in spa hotels; second, to identify aspects of food and beverage service quality of which customers had the highest expectations, i.
e. the key dimensions of food and beverage service quality in spa hotels; third, to measure customer perceptions of the spa hotels in this study and to identify those dimensions with the largest gap between customer expectations and perceptions. A self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to 331 customers at four different spa hotels in Balikesir, Turkey. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify service quality dimensions. Customer expectations, perceptions and gaps between expectations and perceptions for each dimension were measured. Key dimensions for food and beverage service quality in spa hotels were identified and a reliable instrument for measuring provision was developed.(Ana Salazar, 2010) The purpose of this paper is to present a scale for service quality evaluation in the hospitality sector. This scale has two aims: to assess the dimensions and attributes consumers use when evaluating the quality of the service provided by hotels, and to determine what influence service quality perceptions have on consumer behaviour, namely on customer intentions to return and to recommend the hotel.
The methodology used to develop the scale was divided into three stages: first, two well?known models (SERVQUAL with direct formulation and SERVPERF) were tested in 32 hotels, through 532 questionnaires. As these models were not conclusive, a second phase took place: 109 in?depth interviews were conducted to assess the relevant factors or attributes for consumers during a hotel stay, both for the holiday and business segments. Based on the results of the interviews, a questionnaire was designed to evaluate service quality provided by four and five star hotels. On this third phase, a sample of 257 respondents/hotel customers was achieved. The main results point to the existence of five dimensions: room (tangibles and service); feelings; restaurant service; tangibles (location, exterior and restaurant) and reception.(Christian Grönroos, 1984) Proposes to develop a service quality model, based on test of a sample of business executives, which describes how the quality of services is perceived by customers. Looks at its marketing implications, in which functional quality is seen to be a very important dimension of a perceived service. The findings of the study show that quality dimensions are interrelated and that the importance of image should be recognised.
(Amy Wong Ooi Mei, 1999) Examines the dimensions of service quality in the hospitality industry by extending the SERVQUAL scale to include eight new items that specifically pertain to the hospitality industry. A total of 1,000 questionnaires were distributed at five mid?luxury hotels in Australia during July to October 1998 and a response rate of 15.5 per cent was achieved.
The results showed that service quality is represented by three dimensions in the hospitality industry, relating to employees (behaviour and appearance), tangibles and reliability, and the best predictor of overall service quality is the dimensions referred to as employees. The findings also show that the one?column format questionnaire provides a valid and reliable, but much shorter, survey. The major implication for managers is that improvements in the behaviour and appearance of their employees is most likely to enhance consumer perceptions of service quality.(Muslim Amin, 2013) The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship betweenthe service quality dimension and customer satisfaction in theMalaysian hotel industry. A non probability sampling techniquewith a convenient sampling approach was used to conduct this study.
Respondents have been restricted to those who have the experienceof staying in hotels in Malaysia. The majority of the hotel customers were satisfied with the overall quality of the service provided by their hotels. The results suggest that service quality dimension makes a significant contribution to the prediction of customer satisfaction.(Asad Mohsin, 2010) The motive behind conducting this study is to assess the service quality perception of customers of luxury hotels in New Delhi, India and to help the hotel management identify areas that need attention to meet and exceed customer expectations.
The study uses a survey and interview technique to accumulate information for analysis using SPSS version 12 and was conducted at different four? and five?star hotels in New Delhi involving hotel guests agreeing to participate. A usable sample of 271 participants resulted with a large majority being male. Overall the results indicate significant difference between expectations of the guests and actual experiences, thus highlighting managerial implications.
(Abraham Pizam, 1999) This paper reviews and discusses the topic of customer satisfaction and its application to the hospitality and tourism industries. It defines the concept of customer satisfaction and analyzes its importance to services in general and to hospitality/tourism services in particular.(Riadh Ladhari, 2009) The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a conceptual model of the relationships among the constructs of service quality, emotional satisfaction, and behavioural intention.The model is tested in an empirical study with data from a survey among 200 Canadian travellers.The study utilises literature reviews to propose a conceptual model that assumes that: service quality is positively related to consumers’ emotions; service quality is positively related to behavioural intentions; and consumers’ emotions are positively related to behavioural intentions. The results confirm that service quality exerts both direct and indirect effects (through emotional satisfaction) on behavioural intentions.
The research provides valuable insights into the role of emotional satisfaction in the hotel service experience. Emotional satisfaction makes a significant contribution to the prediction of behavioural intentions (such as loyalty, word of mouth, and willingness to pay more). Future research should focus on the role of emotional satisfaction in service experience in a variety of settings.(Philip Worsfold, 1999) This article reviews the nature of HRM and the extent to which it is adopted by industry. HRM in the hotel and catering industry is compared with other sectors of industry, including small to medium size organizations. The literature concerning HRM and performance is briefly reviewed and its relevance to service industries, and the hotel industry is addressed. Service quality is identified as a performance indicator. Determinants of service quality are considered in relation to HRM.
The need for additional research is identified. Methodology used is literature reviews.(Haemoon Oh, 1999) The author proposes and tests an integrative model of service quality, customer value, and customer satisfaction. Using a sample from the luxury segment of the hotel industry, this study provides preliminary results supporting a holistic approach to hospitality customers’ post purchase decision-making process. The model appears to possess practical validity as well as explanatory ability. Implications are discussed and suggestions are developed for both marketers and researchers.(Rooma Roshnee Ramsaran, 2006) The purpose of this study is to investigate whether SERVQUAL dimensions are applicable to the hotel industry, but further research is required. Developing a measure of hotel service quality is an important precursor to attracting and retaining tourists and hence ensuring the survival of hotels.
The evaluation of customer satisfaction is a primary goal for any service firm that would like to survive in this increasingly competitive market. Keeping tourists satisfied and delighted is even more important for the Mauritian tourism industry given that the destination faces fierce competition abroad. Developing a measure of hotel service quality is an important precursor to attracting and retaining tourists and hence ensuring the survival of hotels. SERVQUAL has been proposed as a generic measure of service quality that may be applicable to hotel services.
(Juan A. Campos-Soria, 2005) The purpose of this paper is to analyse and quantify the main interrelationships between service quality and the competitiveness of hotels, distinguishing between external and internal effects. The external effects were evaluated according to customer satisfaction, its influence on the sales volume and the client’s willingness to pay. The internal effects of quality on competitiveness were estimated using average direct costs. The sign and value of the estimated coefficients were used to examine a set of hypotheses for improving the competitiveness of hotels.
The direct, positive effect of high service quality on competitiveness is a particularly important finding.(Simon Hudson, 2004) This article assesses four main methods of measuring customer service quality. The research instruments are Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) and SERVQUAL. However, both measures have been questioned and research has introduced measures that multiply SERVQUAL by Importance, as well as a measure of just Performance (SERVPERF). The data were obtained in cooperation with a major U.K. tour operator.
Of the respondents, 220 completed a questionnaire before departure on what elements were important to them and what their expectations were for these elements. The research found that although there was variety in the rankings of the 13 different elements, there was no statistical difference between the four methodologies.(Suzana Markovi?., 2012) In this paper use the SERVQUAL model to find expectations and perceptions about the service quality of hotels in Croatia and Slovakia. The researchers focussed on a wide audience and the questionnaire was divided into 3 parts measuring the expected service quality, perceived service quality and demographic questions. The questionnaire was formed by analysing and reviewing more than 5 research papers ranging from 1980 to 2000. The sample consisted of more than 430 respondents who were either Croatians or Slovakians.
The data obtained was analysed using tools such as descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test, exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis. The study gave conclusive results and highlighted that hotels need more of intangible aspects and services to serve better and function efficiently with quality.(David Winfield, 2008) The purpose of this study is to compare the Importance/Performance Analysis technique and the service gap technique to the measurement of quality service in the hotel industry. A 5 factor instrument was developed and administered to management and employees of 7 Toronto mid-range and luxury hotel properties in order to capture the service providers’ perspective on service quality. Significant differences between management and employee perception of service quality were found.
Implications for management usmg both techniques are discussed.(Denis Harrington, 1996) The study was undertaken primarily to focus attention on the financial services, healthcare and professional service sectors, and have not generally included analyses of quality in the hotel industry. The study conducted in this article focuses on the nature of service quality in UK hotel organisations, and examines the performance implications of institutionalising service quality initiatives.
Although a large proportion of respondents acknowledge the importance of developing, promoting and measuring service quality it would appear that few managers at the unit level have systems in place to effect implementation.The results reveal that firms who have adopted quality policies do not exhibit exceptional performance in financial and competitive terms. It is concluded that further research needs to be carried out to establish empirically whether service quality implementation practice is consequential for business performance.(A Parasuraman, 1985) The purpose of this study is to measure quality in service. The attainment of quality in products and services had become a pivotal concern of the 1980s.
While quality in tangible goods has been described and measured by marketers, quality in services is largely undefined and unresearched. Methodology used is reporting the insights obtained in an extensive exploratory investigation of quality in four service businesses and by developing a model of service quality. Propositions to stimulate future research about service quality is provided in this study.(J Joseph Cronin Jr, 1992) This study is conducted to understand the relationship between service quality, consumer satisfaction, and purchase intentions. The authors investigate the conceptualization and measurement of service quality and the relationships between service quality, consumer satisfaction, and purchase intentions.
A literature review suggests that the current operationalization of service quality confounds satisfaction and attitude. The tools used were an alternative method of operationalizing perceived service quality and (2) the significance of the relationships between service quality, consumer satisfaction, and purchase intentionsThe findings of the study were a performance-based measure of service quality may be an improved means of measuring the service quality construct, service quality is an antecedent of consumer satisfaction, consumer satisfaction has a significant effect on purchase intentions service quality has less effect on purchase intentions than does consumer satisfaction.(Connor, 2003) Starts by saying, service quality is a concept which is difficult to quantify and strategies need to be implemented in order to achieve service quality and ultimate customer satisfaction. Loyalty is a key factor that determines service quality and customer satisfaction. This research also sees the use of SERVQUAL model to find conclusive results but the model has always had its critics and none of the criticisms have been sufficient to disprove the applicability and usefulness of the model. The study speaks focusing at quality and service as a single aspect providing it to the consumer as per their expectation. Customers are empowered with influential powers which make them demand for their services. The study also talks on the competitive nature of the Tourism and Hospitality Industry and its creation of a large generation gap due to the competitiveness, which has led to a wide understanding, and expectation of Customer service and service quality.
“Customer is the key for the survival and success of every business”. The results of the study showed that there is a large gap in the understanding of Customers by Managers and understanding of Expectations of customers by managers of a business. The main aspect of building relationships with existing customers and coming up with strategies to attract new customers is absent among managers.(Marcjanna Augustyn, 1998) The aim of this study is to emphasize the importance of quality improvement in tourism. Literature related to the changing scenario of the tourism industry, the ever-increasing expectations from tourists, and the tools for measuring perceived service quality is reviewed. The SERVQUAL model is used as a framework for defining the real meaning of customer satisfaction in tourism.
Gap analysis is used to illustrate how tourism-related organizations can improve their service quality. This article concludes that service quality is a necessary and winning strategy in the tourism industry for the new millennium.(Robert W. Armstrong, 1997) This research paper examines the impact of expectations on service quality perceptions in the Hong Kong hotel industry which involved cross-cultural samples. Data were collected from hotel guests from different cultures in three major Hong Kong hotels using the SERVQUAL instrument to measure service quality. The study found that significant expectations differences exist between cultural groups and that expectations did not improve the validity of SERVQUAL.(Miyoung Jeonga, 1998) This paper considers both external and internal service management issues and subsequent service innovations based on the framework of Quality Function Deployment (QFD). This study provides an overview of the QFD process and develops a hypothetical application in the lodging industry in order to illustrate future application and analysis strategies.
Some benefits and disadvantages of the QFD process are discussed as compared to extant service quality and customer satisfaction paradigms. Suggestions and directions are offered for future applications, with particular interest in hospitality-specific service management issues.(Senga Briggs, 2007) This article examines service quality across small, medium and large hotels in Scotland to establish management and customers’ current perceptions of service quality performance. Although service quality in the hotel industry has been well researched, there is little comparative research across the Scottish hotel sector on service quality aspects. This study examines service quality across small, medium and large hotels in Scotland to establish management and customers’ current perceptions of service quality performance. Empirical findings indicate service is being lost by the focus of the Scottish quality assurance scheme on tangibles and there are major inconsistencies in service quality performance across the sector.
The implications of the findings and avenues for future research are described in the study.(M. Hemmasi, 2011) The current study assess the state of the art in service quality assessment in social science research. The discussion begins with a review of the alternative techniques that have emerged for assessing the quality of services provided by firms.
Of particular interest will be a discussion of the SERVQUAL scale, a proposed measurement instrument for service quality measurement that purports reliability and generalizability across unique service settings, as some strategy scholars have recently embraced this scale. Second, the emerging literature concerning the validity and utility of the SERVQUAL scale for measuring service quality is presented.(Livingstone, 2012) The landside environment of an airport terminal is an important area for both passengers and the airport as it is the first area passengers enter and experience, influencing passengers’ overall airport experiences. This paper talks on landside passenger experiences and factors which influence the quality of these experiences.
Observations of 40 passengers’ airport experiences at two Australian international departure terminals was done for this study. Indicative results show that passengers spend over half of their landside dwell time undertaking processing activities. The results highlight the important influencing role passengers’ companions have over the proportion of landside dwell time passengers spend undertaking discretionary activities. The findings provide an understanding of passenger landside experiences and how they can be improved.
The significance of these findings lies in their potential application to landside airport terminal design with specific examples outlined. This new knowledge will assist in improving passenger airport experiences through informing future airport planning and design of landside spaces and retail environments.