1. Physicochemical monitoring of air. 2. Biological monitoring and effect of pollutants on vegetation, farm animals and human systems.
3. Correlation between physicochemical monitoring and biological monitoring. The details of each are given below. Physicochemical Monitoring:1. A suitable number of study and sampling sites should be selected within city limits and in the suburban areas, and their micro-meteorology should be studied.
2. An inventory of the pollution sources and of their emissions should be made. 3. Characterization of pollutants, both gaseous and particulates should be determined. 4. Periodic determination of concentration of air pollutants at each side should be carried out. 5.
Concentrations of pollutants such as CO2 nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, SO2, HF, O3 , pb, etc. should be determined in the air sample. Biological Monitoring Effect of Pollutants on Vegetation:1. Plants growing at each site should be listed substrata wise-bark, soil, wall, etc.
2. A complete inventory of plants present at each side should be prepared. 3. Study of growth behaviour and fertility of plants at each site should be conducted.
4. The branching pattern, canopy-size and canopy- geometry of each tree-species should be carefully scrutinized and photographed with specific conditions. 5. Symptom studies and analysis of tree leaves should be carried out.
6. Microscopic investigation of cryptograms and other plant samples to decipher external and internal changes, should be made. 7. Productivity pattern through determination of photomaps values of plants of known ages should be assessed. 8. Concentrations of chlorophyll, proteins, sugars, calorific energy and pollutants such as S02, fluoride, Pb etc., in plant and soil samples, should be determined. 9.
pH and buffer capacity of leaves, bark and soil-extracts, should be determined. 10. Fumigation studies with selected plants and pollutants should be undertaken under known ecological conditions to obtain a prior evidence for the cause-effect relationship. Effect on Farm Animals:1. Symptoms of acute and chronic fluorine poisoning should be investigated. 2. Symptoms of acute and chronic lead poisoning should be investigated. 3.
Urine samples should be analysed for fluorides and lead. Effect on Human Systems 1. Effect of gaseous pollutants 2. Effect of particulate pollutants 3. Air pollution as a casual factor in chronic diseases, e.g., tuberculosis, eosinophil, pneumoconiosis, fluorosis, etc.
Correlation of Physicochemical Monitoring and Biological Monitoring:1. Study of the relationship between the pollutant level in the air and as in detected plants. 2.
The entire city limit, including the suburban areas, should be delineated into different pollution zones based on pollutant data in air, soil and plant samples. 3. Selection of plants a creating shelter belts in highly polluted cities.
4. Determination of Ascorbic acid and protein content of pollution tolerant plants to assess their limit of toleration. Based on these investigations, the conclusions could include:1. Preparation of a pollution map for cities, clearly indicating heavily polluted, moderately polluted and clean areas, i.e., practically pollution-free areas.
2. Indication for location of industrial areas. 3. Guidelines for dispersal of industry. 4.
Suggestion of suitable control measures to those industries which are found to be heavy polluters. 5. Suitable guidelines for development of housing complexes and planned development of the town. 6. Recommendations for the height of chimneys.
7. Recommendations for sites available for landfill incinerators.