History


Explain why and how, Hitler and the NSDAP began to attract some support
from people in Germany between 1919 and 1923.


There were many reasons why Hitler got into power: the defeat in world war
one, Treaty of Versailles, “stab in the back theory”, weak leadership, fear
of communist/revolutions, economic impact of world war one, reparations,
hyperinflations of 1923, French invasion of the Ruhr.

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In 1914 at the beginning of the war, the Germens were very confident that
they were going to win the war. However, by 1917 it was very clear to the
army’s High Command that they were not going to win the war. The army still
had a little hope, when Bolshevik seizure of power in Petrograd in November
1917. Then in 1917, Germany was talking about peace with Russia, which led
to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918). Under the Treaty of Brest-
Litovsk Germany gained a lot of land from the east. Now they could
concentrate on the west side of Germany. The extra men helped at first but
the Allies did not give up, and then soon started to gain land. In
September 1917, Germany’s army chiefs- Paul von Hindenburg, head of the
high Commands, and Erich Ludendorff, his senior quartermaster general,
realised that it was certain they would not win the war. Hindenburg and
Ludendorff cared the most about the army’s reputation. They knew that if
they lost the war, it would look bad on them, because they were the one who
were responsible of the country while Germany was at war. Therefore, they
asked the Kaiser if their power of the country could be give to civilian
politicians. Prince Max of Baden, head of the German Red Cross and a
political moderate, was appointed the Imperial Chancellor, in 1st October
1918.

However, the army were still sending out propaganda to the people,
convincing them that they will win the war even when the army knows they
will not. After four long years of blood, war and propaganda, people
started to believe the posted and advertisements. Therefore, when the
Weimar Government signed the Armistice in 1918, the German people did not
understand why they had given up. They felt that that the new Government
have signed them away to the Allies. They felt as if the Weimar Government
has stabbed them in the back. Some people did not believe that they have
been defeated because they German’s were still in French territory when
they were asked to stop fighting.

Then in June 1919, the German’s were forced to sign the Treaty of
Versailles. NO one liked the Treaty of Versailles because it was so unfair;
the German’s were given total blamed for starting the war (the war guilt
clause). They had to pay 66000 million in reparations. All of Germany’s
territories and colonies were taken away then shared out amongst the
Allies. Germany’s proud army was reduced to 100,000 men, Conscription was
banned-the soldiers had to join the army voluntarily, Germany was not
allowed any armed vehicles, submarines or aircrafts, the navy was only
allowed to build six-battle ship, the Rhineland became a demilitarised
zone. This means that no German troops were allowed into that area; the
Rhineland was important because it was the land separating France and
Germany. Then they were not allowed to join the League of Nations when it
opened, which the German people found very insulting.

It was very hard to have a stable government because, at times there could
be up to four or five different parties in the coalition government, this
made it very hard to run a government. All the different parties would have
different ideas and they would not be able to agree on anything. The more
parties there are in a coalition government the harder it is to solve
problems, and the shorter time the government would run the country, before
it collapses and another government is elected. In about 5 years, they
could of when through around 5 to 7 different governments. This just shows
who unstable the country is. This concept must be very hard for the more
mature German citizens, because they were used to having strong leadership
all their lives and now they have been through into a very unbalanced
leadership.

The German economic was in bad shape before the war, the Kaiser thought
that Germany was going to win the war for sure, so he took out 100’s of
thousands of marks from international banks. Thinking that he was going to
win the war, he thought he could pay off all the dept when he gets the
spoils of the war. So even before the war started Germany’s economy was in
bad shape. When the Treaty of Versailles said that Germany had to pay the
Allies 66000 million, the German economy was in more strain then ever.

They could pay the reparations and the international loans as well, after
the war Germany’s dept seemed to spiral out of control.

When the German has started to lack behind on their payments, France and
Belgium got very impatient and took over the industrial heart of Germany,
Ruhr. The German army was in no state to fight the French or the Belgium
army. Because the French went into the main industrial area of Germany, the
German government told the worker to go on a passive resistance, and stop
working for the French. The German industrial, heart stopped beating,
nothing was being produced. The French soldiers tried to force the workers
but that did work. Therefore, the French brought some of their men up and
made them work, but they did not get as much produces produced. The German
government was supporting the strike in the Ruhr, so they had to pay all
the people who are on strike therefore they printed more money to pay them.

Germany did not have the properties to support their money, so their
currency started to lose its value. Because the value is decreasing, the
government had to print more money to pay the people, then more money they
print the les the currency is worth, this went in a vicious circle. This
situation was called hyperinflation.

The hyperinflation scared the Allies a lot, because they scared, that
Germany might catch the communist disease. They know that communist is
attracted to poor and run down countries like Germany. The Allies knows
that Russia would have a strong influence on Germany if they do not do
something fast. The Allies could see how there were so many revolts going
to in Germany. This was not a good sign either; they can see that the
German government is under attack from its own people because their living
conditions or they way that they are living is not satisfactory.

These events are why helped Hitler and his party to got into power.


How did these events affect the support of Hitler and his party?
There are many reasons for that too: More and more people were joining the
NSDAP, lots of money from the right wing elites were give to Hitler’s
party, connection with the army, and support from the trial of the Munich
putsch.


Germany has gone through a lot of pressures and rough spots, after the
First World War. In addition, the people were desperate to get their
country in order. Germany has been a strong and prosperous county before
the war, now that there is poverty and disorder, people are finding it hard
to live with chaos. When the situation in their country gets too much for
them, they believe that they would prefer to have a dictatorship, where
they have a good leadership, then democracy, where there is no stability.

When Germany was going through its hardest times, more and more people were
supporting more extreme political parties.

That was one reason why Hitler’s party increased in support from the German
people. The other reason is that, Hitler had the best oratorical skills. He
joined the DAP, at first there was not that many people there to listen to
him. However, when he got started more and more people came to listen to
his speech. His speeches especially moved the younger generations, who
supported his racist and aggressive behaviour.

The NSDAP was a right wing party, but they did care bout the Kaiser and
butting him back on the throne, apart from that they had the similar ideas
as the rest of the right wing parties. Hitler used to hold speeches at the
right wing elites dinner parties, so Hitler had a strong relationship with
the right wing elites. The NSDAP appealed the right wing elites, so they
were ready to give the NSDAP a lot of fund money to run the party. This
money helped the party to run and function properly.

The army are members of the of the right wing elites, because Hitler has
used to be in the army he had a few connections with the army. Hitler used
his oratorical skill to persuade them to help him and his party. Hitler
knew if he had the support of the army then he has a lot of power to
through around. If the army supported him then he has the power to take
over the Weimar government. The right wing elites also had a private army
called the Freikorps; they are ex-soldiers who have been kicked out of the
army, because the Treaty of Versailles said there should only be 100,000
men in the army. These men are fighting with a passion because they love
fighting and they love their army, but they have been chucked out of the
army not because of their lack of skills. With the help from both the
Freikorps and the army, Hitler ahs a strong defence.

That is why Hitler encourages and pressed on with the Munich putsch,
because he thought that he has all the support he needs and nothing can
stop him and his party. He also thought that he would have a lot of support
from the public because, there was the passive strike at the Ruhr and now
G. Stresemann is the Chancellor he ordered them to stop the strike and go
back to work. Hitler found this very of fencing, because he is believes
that Stresemann is supporting the Treaty of Versailles that is why he was
telling the striker to go back to work. He thought that all the people felt
the same way; he forgot that Stresemann actions helped the people and the
economy, and Stresemann too hated the Treaty of Versailles. When the people
saw the difference that Stresemann was making to the country, some people
started to stop supporting the extreme parties and stick to the parties in
between. However, Hitler did still have the support of a general, General
Ludendorff, and the Nazi storm troopers. When Hitler was caught for
treason, some people thought he was going to serve a life sentence for his
crime, but he did not. He used the publicity at the trial to improve his
oratorical skills; he gave a speech about he was no criminal because he
want the best for his country and that he did not mean not harm. If he did
a crime and that would be, he loved his country too much and would be
willing to do anything to protect it from foreigners. He gained a lot of
publicity because all the press was there to see that man who was so close
to taking over the government. All the papers would have every single word
that he said at the trial, in it. This helped him to spread his opinions
and ideas.

ThishowHitlerattractedsupportfrompeopleinGermany.

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