Gears are important to mechanical engineering as a

Gears are important to mechanical engineering as a majority
of mechanical systems require gears to function meaning that they are
mass-produced all the time for creating new products, new systems, or
maintenance. (2) Machining (Milling, shaping), forming (stamping, extrusion),
and additive processes (die casting, powder metallurgy) are used to create
gears. They can even be heat treated (hardened, annealed, tempering) in order
to improve the properties of the material that the gear is made of in order to
ensure that it is less likely to wear out. All of these processes will require
energy, especially if gears are being mass-produced at such a high rate.
Obstacles occur during the process of constructing the gears, one example is
when the metal is being cut for the gears, the excess metal and cooling agent
become difficult to handle and dispose of. The metal would be difficult to
recycle as it requires a lot of energy to reform it but the cooling agent is
more dangerous to the environment as it could potentially contaminate the
ground.  Another example is that pumping
the cooling agent on the metal whilst it’s being machined does consume more
power than other systems meaning energy could be easily wasted. The finishing
processes such as heat treatment, powder metallurgy, and trimming does consume
a large amount of energy due to there being maintenance performed on it
regularly making it more challenging to recycle. The situation is that gears
have to be made to a good standard therefore lots of finishing processes must
be used in order to achieve this quality therefore showing that large amounts
of energy is used to produce gears of a high quality. Furthermore if these
processes are being used constantly, the tool bits are going to be worn out
quickly meaning more has to be produced in order to replace it or it has to be
taken to maintenance to be repaired or sharpened, both of which prove to be
wasteful as well


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One strategy that was implemented was to use an environmentally
friendly cooling agent that couldn’t endanger the environment and make it less
likely for workers to injure themselves on wet excess metal with sharp edges.
This would mean that there is less waste disposal due to the fact that the
cooling agent must be used to a minimum to ensure that you don’t have any
unneeded wastage when it comes to coolant or energy.

Gear Rolling
originally from Reference (8)

The second scheme was to use advanced manufacturing processes for the
gears, the process used for this was called gear rolling, otherwise known as
flat rolling. The gears are rolled at a cold temperature (the temperature at
which the metal is below its recrystallization temperature) that move in
opposite directions of each other allowing for the rolling dies to make the
teeth using compressive forces. This would consequently increase its compressive
strength thus making finishing processes such as heat treatment, forming
processes, and additive processes to be unnecessary allowing energy to be saved.
Another factor is that tool bits are used less frequently meaning they do not
need to be repaired/ replaced as frequently.  


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