Future of Automobile Engineering Mohammed Abdul Wadood Ahmed B.
TECH Mechanical and Automation Semester 3 TABLE OFCONTENT1. Abstract2. Introduction3. Future OfAutomobile4. Introduction ofInduction Motor5. Working6. Advantages of ACMotors7. Disadvantages ofAC Motors8.
DC Motor9. Advantages of DCMotor10. Disadvantages ofDC Motor11. AC vs DC12.
Advancements ofAC Motor13. IncreasingDemand and Popularity14. Development forFuture 15. Conclusion I. AbstractThe aim of this paper is to shed some light on howfar the automation industry has come and how much it has progressed. In thispaper we will see some of the many improvements to the automation sector of theworld and also see what can be considered the future of the automation sectorwith the improvements of engine technology and design and also on the impact ofthe introduction of the hybrid engines and the introduction of electric andbattery powered cars to this era.
In this paper we will mainly focus on thedevelopment of the induction motors and how it can affect the future ofautomation and also discuss ‘will it be successful in replacing the traditionalengine’. We will also the advantages and the disadvantages of using thesemotors. II. IntroductionWhat is Automobile Engineering?Automobile Engineering is a branch of engineeringwhich deals with designing, manufacturing and operating automobiles. It is asegment of vehicle engineering which deals with motorcycles, buses, trucks,etc. It includes mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safetyelements. The skills required to be mastered are as follows – Artistic, Creative,Technical knowledge, Effective planner, Precision, Meticulous, Systematic, Punctual,Team workerTo comprehend the future we need to understand thepast and take a quick look at the history of automation.
Let’s startwith the introduction of the internal combustion engine.An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat enginewhere the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in acombustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature andhigh-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to somecomponent of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons, turbineblades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance,transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy.
The first commercially successful internalcombustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 18591 and the firstmodern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nikolaus Otto (seeOtto engine). This engine was used throughout the timeline for automation andwas continuously and vigorously. Introductionof the Hybrid Engine – As we know the ICE went through updates andimprovements until the 1990s when the engine was combined with an electricmotor and therefore using more than one sources of power and reducing the fuelconsumption and providing more mileage per gallon. Some other developments include –i. FourStroke Engine – Four-stroke engineswere one of the earliest improvements made to internal combustion engines inthe late 1800s. On a four-stroke engine, there are four steps the engine takesas it burns gasoline: intake, compression, power, and exhaust. These steps alloccur when as piston moves up and down two times.
ii. ForcedInjection – In a forced induction engine, air is forced into thecombustion chamber at a higher pressure than usual, creating a highercompression and more power from each stroke of the engine. Turbochargers andsuperchargers are essentially air compressors that shove more air into theengineiii. DirectInjection – Direct injection is a further refinement of the improvementsmade by fuel injection. Asyou may have guessed from its name, it allows fuel injection to “skip astep,” which adds efficiency to the engine, and more power and improved fuel economy as aconsequence.
iv. FuelInjection – Carburetors have been almost completely replaced by fuelinjection, a far more sophisticated and effective system of mixing fuel andair. Fuel injectors spray gasoline into the air intake manifold, where fueland air mix together into a fine mist. That mix is brought into the combustionchamber by valves on each cylinder during the intake process.v. Dual camshaft – Camshafts arepart of your car’s valvetrain,which is a system that controls the flow of fuel and air into the cylinders.For many decades cars primarily had OHV engines, meaning overhead valves, alsocalled “pushrods.” Pushrods are driven by camshafts inside the engineblock.
This setup adds mass to the engine and can limit its overall speed. Onan overhead cam setup, the camshaft is much smaller and is inserted above thecylinder head itself, rather than in the engine block. There’s one on a singleoverhead cam (SOHC) engine, while a DOHC engine has two. The benefit to theoverhead cam setup is that it allows for more intake and exhaust valves,meaning fuel, air and exhaust can move more freely through the engine, addingpower.
These are some small examples. III. Future of Automobiles Ever since theintroduction of the hybrid motor there have been continuous advances in termsof automation technology and it is still advancing to this date and willcontinue to throughout the future of automobiles can be seen and is very clearand right around the corner right about now. Introduction of driver aidfeatures have taken up and most manufactures are also more focused on how tomake the drive and the engine along with all other components of the car morereliable and efficient. Autonomous driving is also one of the most desiredfeatures and sought after feature the general public has wanted andmanufacturers look towards developing and introducing it in their cars.
IV. Introductionof Induction Motor The introduction of electric vehicles have led intoa revolutionary chapter in the history of the automobile industry. Thesevehicles have gained popularity fast because of the fact that they use electricmotor instead of a traditional petrol or diesel engine found in most cars eversince the beginning and that plays a factor in helping the environment reducingconsumption of fuel and also helps the people reduce the cost of refuelingtheir cars.
The introduction of the induction motor as a “replacement engine”was a revolutionary step. This tactic was first introduced by tesla in itsModel S and Model X electric vehicles that are operated on a rechargeableLithium battery and a Powerful Induction Motor. V. WorkingThe working of an induction motor is based onFaradays law of Electromagnetic Induction i.e. alternating flux revolves with synchronous speed. Therevolving flux is called as “Rotating Magnetic Field” (RMF).
The relative speedbetween stator RMF and rotor conductors causes an induced emf in the rotorconductors. In this figure we can see how both the redelectromagnetic coils are energized and and both the blue coils are energizedtogether. Since AC currents dose not switch on and off abruptly rather risesand falls therefore allowing the red coils to be active while the blue are notand vice versa and they maintain a constant 90o phase difference. Asthe coils are energized they produce a magnetic field between them that inducesan electric current in the rotor. This current produces its own magnetic fieldthat tries to oppose the thing that caused it (the magnetic field from theouter coils). The interaction between the two fields causes the rotor to turn. Asthe magnetic field alternates between the red and blue coils, it effectivelyrotates around the motor.
The rotating magnetic field makes the rotor spin inthe same direction and (in theory) at almost the same speed. VI. Advantages of ACMotor Using the Ac motor has a lot of advantages, some ofwhich are as follows –i. Their voltages can be stepped up andstepped down ii. They lose very less energy intransmissioniii. They are cheaper to maintain becausethey have very less moving parts iv.
They produce less heat and friction.v. They are light in weight and are moreefficient than their DC counterparts.vi.
High torquevii. High durability viii. Regenerative Breaking is possibleVII. Disadvantagesi. They need to beinsulated because of the EMR producedii. Production ofEddy current due to back EMF VIII. DCMotorDC electric motors arepowered from direct current (DC) power and are mechanically commutatedmachines.
DC electric motors have a voltage induced rotating armature winding,and a non-rotating armature field frame winding that is a static field, orpermanent magnet.DC electric motors usedifferent motor connections of the field and armature winding to producedifferent speed and torque regulation. Unlike AC electric motors, DC electricmotor speed can be controlled within the winding by changing the voltageapplied to the DC motor armature, or by adjusting the field frame current. IX. Advantages of DCMotori. Does not needheavy insulation like its counterpartii. Transmission hasno energy loss due to induction of metal partsX.
Disadvantages of DC Motori. Very hard tomaintainii. They cannot betransformed(Stepped up or Stepped down)iii. They are notreliable due to warping under high temperatures and pressureiv. Vulnerable todust that can cause decreased performance. XI.
ACMotor vs DC MotorAs seen in the abovecomparison between AC and DC motors that AC motors are more reliable and arevery easy to maintain and can provide better performance and are also costfriendly. XII. Advancements of AC MotorsAdvancements in the induction motortechnology are continuously being made to make it more efficient and to make itmore powerful.Some researches are being held toreduce the size of the motor and air cooling it to make it more efficient Regenerating power from braking isalso one of the advancements that is possible only by the use of inductionmotors.
XIII. IncreasingDemand and PopularityElectric vehiclescontinue to grow in popularity and the demand of people because of their highreliability, power and low maintenance cost and come in an eco-friendly andcompletely featured packed packageAfter the launch of therevolutionary vehicles from Tesla i.e. the Model S and the Model X and theresponse they have got from public has encouraged many other automobilemanufacturers to start developing such cars and integrate features such asautonomous driving and etc.As we can see from thechart, there is a gradual increase in the plan of automakers to introduceelectric powered vehicles in the future to come.
XIV. Developments for the FutureAutomakers have starteddeveloping their cars for the future by introducing new technology that appealsto the public and can revolutionize the automobile segment.Some of these arei. Autonomous Driving – Automakers are constantly trying to developautonomous driving in their vehicle to appeal to the public and making it saferfor people on the road and reduce accident ii. Communicating Cars – A developingtechnology called Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication, or V2V, is being tested by automotivemanufacturers like Ford as a way to help reduce the amount of accidents on theroad.V2V works by using wireless signals to send information back and forthbetween cars about their location, speed and direction. The information is thencommunicated to the cars around it in order to provide information on how tokeep the vehicles safe distances from each other.
iii. Energy Storing Body Panels – The panels would capture energy produced bytechnologies like regenerative braking or when the car is plugged in overnightand then feed that energy back to the car when it’s needed. Not only would thishelp reduce the size of hybrid batteries, but the extra savings in weight wouldeliminate wasted energy used to move the weight from the batteries. Toyota isalso looking into lightweight energy storing panels, but they’re taking it onestep further and researching body panels that would actually capture solarenergy and store it in a lightweight panel.iv. Regenerating Braking –In a battery-powered electric vehicle, regenerative braking (also calledRegen) is the conversion of the vehicle’s kinetic energy into chemical energystored in the battery, where it can be used later to drive the vehicle.
Itis braking because italso serves to slow the vehicle XV. ConclusionIn conclusion I wouldlike to close this topic by saying that the future of the automobile industryis very bright with the continuous development of the induction motor as theEngine Replacement and other advancements and the future will not be far whenwe might see cars that drive them self without any human interaction or carsthat might fly. This breakthrough will be the next huge step in the developmentof the Automobile Industry.