From time went on. Activists wanted to spread


Fromlate 1980’s to early 1990’s, information access was impossible and most webplatforms were restricted to the objectives and goals of their creation. Theneed to inform people and have access to information was becoming a growingconcern as time went on. Activists wanted to spread information of good will topeople all over the world and created a worm that infected the browser andtransmitted messages automatically without the users’ knowledge. As such,hackers used the worms and made decoys of the messages of good hope to accessthe system back end information and data. In some cases, instead of sending themessages intended, people would send unintended unethical material to othersystems. Despite the misuse, hacktivism is becoming one of the major threats toinformation security as it is being funded and used by wealthy politicians andstable companies or organizations to spread messages against their competitors.

According to Kelly (2012), followers of the trending news and affiliated userswho have more interest in the services provided by the company or the politicalaffiliation fall prey to the hackers when they open the links bearing thecontent. Unaware of the threat, the user’s system is infected by viruses thattransmit data and information to the hacker.Withincrease in hacking and hacktivism, states and governments derive ways ofsafeguarding the innocent persons in the society who are likely to fall prey tothe activities of hackers. As news platforms highlight, cybercrimes have becomea regular feature on the daily news that calls for extra or additional policing(Milone, 2003). As shown by Kremer (2014), the stories continue to intensifythe culture of fear among the users about cybercrime and exert pressure onpolicing and need for military involvement. The military has to follow themindset system where the strategic goal remains to liberate the innocentvictims of cybercrime and balance between national security of the country inquestion and the interest of the offender. Since the affected platforms are webbased, the military has to come up with strategies and work with the localpolice to see to it that the transnational threats caused by cybercrimes overthe global network are not delivered in the country (Lewis, 2014).

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Thereassurance gap between the public demand for the police to deliver and whatthe police and the military can deliver at the end of the day worsens. Thiscreates an overall assumption that it is impossible to control the internet andthere is need for self-policing as the government uses its arms to improve andregulate offending behaviors over the internet. Common Internet Security Risks and SafeguardsWithneed for self-policing arising, users can be protected by a secured socketlayer protocol, which creates a secure tunnel between the browser and theserver to safeguard any data or information that is exchanged within thesecured tunnel. Secure socket layer provides authentication to the server usingcertificate from the users as a form of prove of their identity. Data intransit over the internet is very vulnerable yet important. As such, user’s emails,credit card details and other forms of data are at a risk.

An SSL protocolwithin the TCP/IP helps support the typical application of communication tasksbetween the server and the client to protect the client’s information fromhackers (Lewis, 2014). Protocol encryption comes in handy in such scenarios aswell. A description of the protocol defines the details about the datastructures and the representations that define the point to which theimplementation of multiple and interoperable versions of a program can be done.Cryptographic protocols are used to secure the application level by consideringthe following key aspects: establishment of key arrangement, authentication ofentities, symmetric encryption of material construction within the network,enforcement of the non-repudiation methods, and creation of a securemulti-party computation. According to Micciancio (2010), the cryptographicprotocol is used in most cases to secure the HTTP and the HTTPS connections anduses the X.509 system mechanism.Thereare very many risks ranging from more serious to less serious that come alongwith cybercrimes. The worst of all is the effect caused by viruses that wipeclean files making the files unrecoverable.

Unfortunately for the user, thereis no guarantee that even when using the best precautions available in themarket, some of the cybercrimes will not happen at some point when using orinteracting with computers especially on the internet (Morrissey, 2015). Tosafeguard the system from the many anomalies that exist, it is important forthe users to perform safety practices before opening files like running a scanof the files, installing anti-malware software to protect the system and allowthe browser to run a scan of the emails before opening or downloading theemails and their attachments to the computer. Before running a programmed code,it is important to test and verify the development platform and processalongside the authenticity of the software vendor. Many software that are notwell programmed come along with programming errors making them vulnerable tocyber-attacks (Winnefeld et al., 2015). There is a realistic assumption thathas been overlooked on several occasions about the existence of an attackersomewhere in the cyber space that is ready and willing to attack anotherperson’s computer.

The most vulnerable people to the ignored assumption are thesmall enterprise users who see no need to protect their computers with theassumption that they do not have important information that anyone may need.Such users in the recent years have fallen prey to phishing on the social mediaplatforms.ConclusionGovernmentsand the military organizations on the global front have made all the efforts toprotect their information. Despite the efforts, users find themselves underattack from the hackers and other data thieves. This leaves the public withquestions that need to be addressed like:·  Whoserole specifically is it to protect the user from Cyber security threats?Withincreasingly sophisticated attackers, it would be unwise to expect the laymanto understand how to properly protect themselves for more serious attacks.While certain types of malware and spyware should without question be placed inthe territory of the user to guard against, ransomware and data breaches shouldbe delegated to more specialized organizations. Whether this should be assignedto the government or private companies is still a topic for debate.

·  Ifthe government wants to introduce cybersecurity bill into a law, will the lawbe applied to other citizens who steal data yet are not residents within thecountry of criminal activity?Itis well known that most high-profile attacks are perpetrated from outside theborders of the victim country. The methods that these countries use toextradite the criminals also is not always legal, and is creating an air ofmistrust on both sides. This problem needs to be addressed internationally,with standardized definitions of territory in cyberspace and to which countryit belongs too.·  Howand why do computer breaches really occur?Whilethere are many reasons that computer and data breaches are occurring in theworld today, it is still vital to understand why they occur and how. This isparamount in anticipating the targets of a future attack. While the realm ofcyberspace is changing rapidly, it is becoming an environment of anticipationand proactiveness, rather than that of passiveness and reactiveness.

Respondingto attacks is no longer sufficient, as the amount of damage from a single attackcan be enormous.Cybersecurityis important to protect information in computing environments by preventing,detecting, and giving response to attacks. Despite the high costs that comealong with it, the protection it accords the data and information is worthprotecting and the costs incurred. Cybersecurity standards are beingimplemented so as to have a uniform platform to approach the threats.

Althoughthere is no professionalism that specifically addresses every issue in thefield, the available people who can secure the software try to use theavailable resources to protect data from data thieves and monitor the systemsagainst cybercrimes. It is hard for the police and themilitary to protect people from cybercrime due to different laws that have beenadopted by different countries yet the crimes are committed over the globalnetwork. Therefore, this calls for self-policing and the need to haveinformation assurance and information security.

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