Eutrophication should undergo chemical processes such as water


Eutrophication

Eutrophication happened
when the water or the environment contained excess nutrients. These caused a
major problem to our ecosystem. For instance, causes changes in plant and
animal life. The term of eutrophic is known as well-nourished, and
eutrophication is known as addition of artificial substances into the water.
Eutrophication happened all around the world. Government had took many action
to stop this problem but it’s still happening every day. First, what causes eutrophication
to happen?

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1.     
Fertilizers

Fertilizers
are always used by farmer to promote the growth of crops. In order for plants
to grow, fertilizers are very important. Fertilizers run off to nearby water
such as lake by rainwater which causes eutrophication. Fertilizers contain nitrogen,
phosphorus and potassium. The secondary nutrients are sulphur, calcium, and
magnesium. The most important nutrients of fertilizers are nitrogen, potassium
and phosphorus. Examples of fertilizers are ammonium nitrate and ammonium
sulphate and more. The run off fertilizers increases the nutrient level of the
water. The pollutants causes the growth of aquatics plants at the bottom of the
lake. The excess nutrients caused algae bloom. The algae bloom is the rapid
growth of bacteria such as algae in the water. Cyanobacteria bloom is also
known as algae bloom. The algae bloom form a layer on the surface of water
which caused the sunlight cannot be penetrated into the water. Therefore, the
aquatics plant cannot obtain sunlight. Aquatics plants need sunlight for
photosynthesis. After some time, the plants die and accumulate at the bottom of
the lake. The algae die and sink into the bottom of the lake. Decomposition of
microorganisms take place. The bacteria decompose the dead plants and thus used
up oxygen in the water. Oxygen in the water is depleted. The biochemical oxygen
demand (BOD) is high which means the dissolved oxygen is low. The fishes in the
water die because no oxygen for them to survive. This causes changes in
ecosystem. The water of the lake become green colour with some algae are found
on the surface of the water. The water is not suitable for human drinking
because it may causes health problem and other diseases. The water should
undergo chemical processes such as water purification and water treatment to
sterilize the water before drinking. It is to kill and remove all those
unwanted contaminants and microorganisms which are harmful to human.
Eutrophication bring a lot of problems to not only animals and also humans.

 

2.     
Direct sewage discharge and industrial
waste

The
wastes from factory are direct discharged to lake causes eutrophication. The
wastes from factory are toxic and contain many contaminants which caused the
nutrient level in lake to increase. Thus the algae obtain nutrients and which
lead to eutrophication. The toxic substances from factory caused the fishes
inside the lake to die. The toxic substances caused changes in the water
colour. The water become harmful to human because contained toxic substances.
Next, the direct sewage discharge caused eutrophication. For instance, direct
sewage such as the detergent, soap water and more. These caused excess nutrient
inside the lake. Thus some algae produced toxins which are harmful to human and
this can cause changes in food chain of animals which lead to problems in
ecosystem.

3.     
Natural events

Natural
events that always happened will cause eutrophication. For instance, flood or
tsunami that washed off all those excess nutrients into the lake which lead to
eutrophication. This cannot be prevent.

 

The
Impact of eutrophication

1.     
Algal bloom

The
effect of eutrophication is the algal bloom. The result of green colour on the
surface of the water is because of the presence of cyanobacteria. Excess
nutrients in the water caused the algal bloom. Excess nutrients are fertilizers
or any other household products. Excess nutrients contain phosphorus. The
production of phytoplankton caused the algal bloom. Phytoplankton obtained energy
by photosynthesis. This proved that it is autotrophs. They used sunlight to
make themselves own foods for survive. High concentration of phytoplankton will
caused the water to become green colour. For phytoplankton to growth, there
must be a suitable temperature and enough nutrients for them to grow. Algal
bloom is because of the rapid growth of the phytoplankton. After the waste
water is being discharge into the water, there are excess nutrient thus
encourage the growth of cyanobacteria and phytoplankton which lead to algal
bloom and eutrophication. To prevent eutrophication, we should prevent direct
sewage discharge into the water. The effect of algal bloom is the algal bloom
is very toxic. Algal bloom caused the lake to become smelly. If animal drink the
water, the animal may die. The algal bloom caused the view of environment
become ugly because it’s turn the water into green colour. Furthermore, the
algal bloom caused the sunlight cannot penetrate into the bottom of the water.
This increase the water  turbidity.

 

2.     
The health of human

The
algal bloom or cyanobacteria in the water may cause death or poisoning to
human. This caused cancer in human. The pollutants may contain toxics which are
harmful to human. If human accidentally drink the untreated water, the person
may stomachache or diarrhea. Thus it’s caused sickness to human too.
Furthermore its caused rashes or any allergies to human. For serious cases, if
infant drink the water which is too high in nitrates it may cause dead to the
infant. It is very important to purify the water before being consumed.
Societies were being encouraged to buy water filter to filter and sterilize the
water before drinking. Therefore, water treatment and water purification are
very important to all of us to make sure our body health. Furthermore, the algal
bloom in lake will caused the growth of mosquitoes which will lead to dengue.
Dengue is very dangerous because it can cause death. The untreated water
provide a suitable environment for the growth of the mosquitoes.

 

What is BOD ?

Biochemical oxygen demand
refers to the amount of oxygen that is utilized when all of the organic matter
in one litre of water is oxidized by living organisms in the water. The
measurement of BOD meaning the level of pollution. If there is large volume of
organic waste in the water, the quantity of aerobic bacteria working to
decompose the waste will be many. Thus the BOD value will be high and the
dissolved oxygen in the water decreases rapidly.Increases in BOD level
indicates a decreases in the dissolved oxygen levels. The dissolved oxygen
levels indicates the level of eutrophication. Lower BOD level indicates better
water quality, higher BOD indicated poor water quality.

Real situations

CHINA—China’s coastal
city, Qingdao has been hit by a record algal bloom. However, the scale of this
year’s algal bloom at 28,900 sq km was double the previous record bloom in
2008.

·        
The algal bloom had turned the water of
the lake to become green yellow water. This is the largest algal bloom ever
recorded in China. The society in Qing Dao cleaned about 45
million kilograms of algal each day.

 

·        
 It is caused by the fertilizers which being
washed off into the lake. Next, the animal discharge also caused eutrophication
in China. The government had taken many actions to stop this but eutrophication
still happening in China. The discharged contain excess nitrate and phosphate
which lead to the production of algal bloom in China. The algal prevent the
sunlight from reaching the bottom of the lake and caused the marine fishes die
because of insufficient of oxygen.   

 

GULF OF MEXICO — 2017
Gulf of Mexico is the largest record ever after. Low oxygen areas appear yearly
off the coast of Louisiana, but 2017’s “dead zone” is reportedly the
largest ever recorded since 1985.According to the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration, this year’s dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico
measures 8,776 square miles, which is roughly the size of New Jersey.

·        
The Dead zones are caused by nitrogen
and phosphorous. These are the nutrients that being washed off from the farm. Nitrogen
and phosphorous stimulate massive algal growth in the Gulf that eventually sinks
to the bottom and decomposes.

·        
Dead Zone are caused by nitrogen and
phosphorus which provide nutrients for the crops and being washed away by the
rainwater. The heavy rain washed away all the nutrients from US farm land. The
excess nutrients stimulated the algae to grow. The algae used up the oxygen in
water which suffocating the marine fishes.

·        
Underwater video which the diver
recorded, its shown that the water is green black colour and full of many
algae. The diver need to use flashlight in the underwater. There is no more
oxygen in the underwater.

·        
Many fishes and crabs are suffocated and
die in the dead zone.

·        
The water in dead zone is being measured
and found that the water has less than the oxygen needed to support basic fish
life.

 

 

Deforestation

Deforestation is the
process of destroying a forest and replacing another activities especially for
agriculture purposes. Our generation destroyed the earth in many ways. One
example of large scale damage is the destruction of forest. Forests are cut
down to produce paper and other wood products. It’s used to plant palm tree
which can get a lot of profit by produce palm oil and sell it. The land are
used to increase the land for other agriculture used. Forests are very
important to all of us. Plants undergo respiration and provide oxygen for us.

Causes of deforestation

1.     
Chopping down the forests for fuel

Fuels are important to
all of us. Human used fuel as generating electric energy. The examples of solid
fuels are charcoal. We use charcoal for barbeque. Besides that, charcoal is
needed every day for the cold weather country. Fuel is burned and provided heat
as heater for them. Besides, charcoal is used for cooking by burned them with
fire. When the charcoal is burned, its released heat and fire. Coals are being
used as electricity generation by today. Next, let’s talk about liquid fuels.
Liquid fuels are used to produce kinetic energies. Liquid fuels can be obtained
from the dead plants which under the multiple layers of earth. The examples of
liquid fuels are petroleum, diesel, gasoline and kerosene. Petroleum and diesel
are much more familiar to all of us because cars need petroleum to function. If
a car is run out of petroleum it cannot function thus cannot moves. Next, fuel
are very valuable and can earn a lot of profit which is very good for
economics. Thus, human like to undergo deforestation and sell fuel to earn
money.

2.     
Harvesting timber for commercial items

Besides that, the trees
are used for commercial used. Human can made a lot of things by using wood. For
instance, wood or timber is used to made furniture such as tables, chairs and
more. After the products being made, they sell the products thus earn money.
It’s is better to chop down the trees and earn money then leaved it there.
Next, woods are cut down to make papers. Papers are being used by everyone in
this world.

·        
One tree produces about 100 pounds (45
kg) of toilet paper and about 83 million rolls are produced per day.

·        
Since a typical 500-sheet packet of the
paper weighs 5 pounds, that’s 10,000 to 20,000 sheets per tree.

Thus, many woods needed
to be cut in order to make papers and toilet papers. Deforestation is always
happening all around the world. Furthermore, many woods are cut down to make
furniture. For instance, timbers are used to make woody chair or woody table.
These products cost a lot of money and thus can gain a lot of profit.

3.     
More land available for housing

After deforestation,
more trees are cut down and thus it makes more land available for housing. Many
houses can be built and thus it gain profit. Human’s activities caused
deforestation in order to earn money.

·        
Research showed that about 3.5 billion
to 7 billion trees cut down each year .

 

4.     
Available land available for agriculture
plantations

One of the major cause
of deforestation is the land are made for plantations of palm tree and rubber
tree. For instance, palm tree are able to produce palm oil. Rubber tree
produces rubber which can make many products such as slippers, plastics and
more. These activities can gain a lot of profit.

 

Method of deforestation

1.      Burning
trees

Deforestation can be
done by burning all the trees. For instance, farmer burned all the trees in
order for plantations. Furthermore, human can easily burned the forest by fire.
Burning caused climate change and rise in temperature. This caused lots of problems
for every organisms on this earth.

 

 

2.      Cutting
trees

The next method of
deforestation is to cut down all the trees. This is not effective as burning
trees. Many workers are needed in order to cut down the trees. Large costs are
needed to pay for the workers. Meanwhile, human prefer to cut down trees by
burning it with fire.

 

Effects of
deforestation

1.     
Destroy animals’ habitat

Forest is the natural
habitat for all the wild animals. Deforestation destroyed their homes. Deforestation
caused around Million of species of animals lost their habitats.

·        
Research result about eighty percent of
Earth’s land animals and plants live in forests, and many cannot survive because
their habitat is destroyed.

·        
For instance, wild animals such as orang
utan, Sumatran elephant, tiger and Sumatran rhino lost their homes.

Furthermore,
deforestation caused the extinction of wild animals. Those wild animals die
because they lost their habitat and thus cannot survive. For instance, kids
nowadays only can see wild animals such as tiger in zoo. Zookeeper kept the
tiger safe because tigers are now facing extinction. Their homes are destroyed
because of humans’ activities or natural events such as tsunami, earthquake and
more.

2.     
Climate change and global warming

Deforestation can be
done by burning the trees. Burning trees caused rise in temperature. This
caused greenhouse effect. If greenhouse effects are high until a level it
caused climate change. Furthermore, the effect of burning trees caused haze.
Haze are harmful to humans. Humans suffered diseases such as diarrhea or
asthma. Asthma can caused dead. The high temperature of earth may cause fever
in humans. The body cannot adapt to high temperature thus caused rise in
temperature of body and brain.

 

3.     
Water cycle in earth

Trees has important
role in maintaining the water cycle. Transpiration that carried out by trees
are helps in regulate the water cycle. The underground roots of trees absorb
water and it is carried up to the stem and to the leaves. This is for the
survival of the trees. The excess water is returned back to atmosphere by the
stomata of the leaves. When the air around the earth becomes saturated with
enough moisture, rain will fall. This begins the water cycle all over again.

 

Real situations of
deforestation

Nigeria, Africa—–
This country has the highest rate of deforestation in the world. Nigeria has
the largest desertifications rate in the world with the loss of 55.7% of its
forest. The forests in Nigeria all become desert. More than 55.5% of the
forests are gone in Nigeria. Deforestation happened without planting the plants
back. Nigeria is a developing country, so lands are used for building of
houses. Trees are cut down to cook foods. The villagers in Nigeria cook foods
by using the woods. Trees are exported to other countries.

·        
Chinese business came to Nigeria to make
business by cutting down trees in Nigeria and brought back to China. All the
wild animals that lives in Nigeria were dead. In Africa, they used wild animals
to earn money. For instance, peoples travelled to Africa to see wild animals.
This caused increases in economics and gain profits.

·        
Erosion happened in Nigeria because
trees are cut down, thus the soil become loose and soft. Nigeria lost homes,
lives because of deforestation.

·        
Deforestation also increase the
temperature in their country. The rate in which the temperature in Nigeria is
keep increasing because of global warming, Nigeria is now hotter than the last
ten years.

·        
Trees are able to absorb carbon dioxide
that we produced while provide oxygen for us. In turn, we are cutting them
down, so carbon dioxide are not be able to absorb by trees. Carbon dioxide
accumulated in atmosphere which caused the temperature to increase.

 

 

 

In-situ conservation

In-situ conservation is the conservation
of genetic sources of plants in their natural habitats. This is to protect the
plants from danger and to make sure that the species of plants continue to
survive. This conservation also can protect the plants from other wild animals
or predators.

Advantages of In-situ conservation

·        
In-situ conservation can help to
maintain the population of plant species. It does not require any other
technology.

·        
It allowed plants to adapt to new
environment easily.

·        
It is a good way to conserve
biodiversity.

·        
It is a natural way to maintain the
population of animals. No harming is involved.

 

Disadvantages of In-situ conservation  

·        
It is a large project thus needed a lot
of workers and land.

·        
Genetic diversity keep decreasing.

 

 

Ex-situ conservation

Ex-situ conservation is the conservation
of organism outside their natural habitat. Some method of ex-situ conservation
is gene banks, collecting living organisms for zoos for research. It is used
for biological research. It helps to maintain domesticated plants which cannot
survive in nature unaided.

 

Advantages of ex-situ conservation

·        
Human can easily measure the genetic
diversity.

·        
Populations can be easily managed.

 

Disadvantages of ex-situ conservation

·        
It needed a lot of financial to
maintain.

 

Ozone Depletion

 

 

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