EutrophicationEutrophication happenedwhen the water or the environment contained excess nutrients. These caused amajor problem to our ecosystem. For instance, causes changes in plant andanimal life.
The term of eutrophic is known as well-nourished, andeutrophication is known as addition of artificial substances into the water.Eutrophication happened all around the world. Government had took many actionto stop this problem but it’s still happening every day. First, what causes eutrophicationto happen?1. Fertilizers Fertilizersare always used by farmer to promote the growth of crops. In order for plantsto grow, fertilizers are very important.
Fertilizers run off to nearby watersuch as lake by rainwater which causes eutrophication. Fertilizers contain nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium. The secondary nutrients are sulphur, calcium, andmagnesium.
The most important nutrients of fertilizers are nitrogen, potassiumand phosphorus. Examples of fertilizers are ammonium nitrate and ammoniumsulphate and more. The run off fertilizers increases the nutrient level of thewater. The pollutants causes the growth of aquatics plants at the bottom of thelake.
The excess nutrients caused algae bloom. The algae bloom is the rapidgrowth of bacteria such as algae in the water. Cyanobacteria bloom is alsoknown as algae bloom. The algae bloom form a layer on the surface of waterwhich caused the sunlight cannot be penetrated into the water. Therefore, theaquatics plant cannot obtain sunlight. Aquatics plants need sunlight forphotosynthesis. After some time, the plants die and accumulate at the bottom ofthe lake.
The algae die and sink into the bottom of the lake. Decomposition ofmicroorganisms take place. The bacteria decompose the dead plants and thus usedup oxygen in the water. Oxygen in the water is depleted. The biochemical oxygendemand (BOD) is high which means the dissolved oxygen is low. The fishes in thewater die because no oxygen for them to survive.
This causes changes inecosystem. The water of the lake become green colour with some algae are foundon the surface of the water. The water is not suitable for human drinkingbecause it may causes health problem and other diseases. The water shouldundergo chemical processes such as water purification and water treatment tosterilize the water before drinking.
It is to kill and remove all thoseunwanted contaminants and microorganisms which are harmful to human.Eutrophication bring a lot of problems to not only animals and also humans. 2. Direct sewage discharge and industrialwaste Thewastes from factory are direct discharged to lake causes eutrophication. Thewastes from factory are toxic and contain many contaminants which caused thenutrient level in lake to increase. Thus the algae obtain nutrients and whichlead to eutrophication.
The toxic substances from factory caused the fishesinside the lake to die. The toxic substances caused changes in the watercolour. The water become harmful to human because contained toxic substances.Next, the direct sewage discharge caused eutrophication. For instance, directsewage such as the detergent, soap water and more. These caused excess nutrientinside the lake. Thus some algae produced toxins which are harmful to human andthis can cause changes in food chain of animals which lead to problems inecosystem.
3. Natural events Naturalevents that always happened will cause eutrophication. For instance, flood ortsunami that washed off all those excess nutrients into the lake which lead toeutrophication. This cannot be prevent. TheImpact of eutrophication 1. Algal bloom Theeffect of eutrophication is the algal bloom. The result of green colour on thesurface of the water is because of the presence of cyanobacteria.
Excessnutrients in the water caused the algal bloom. Excess nutrients are fertilizersor any other household products. Excess nutrients contain phosphorus.
Theproduction of phytoplankton caused the algal bloom. Phytoplankton obtained energyby photosynthesis. This proved that it is autotrophs. They used sunlight tomake themselves own foods for survive. High concentration of phytoplankton willcaused the water to become green colour. For phytoplankton to growth, theremust be a suitable temperature and enough nutrients for them to grow.
Algalbloom is because of the rapid growth of the phytoplankton. After the wastewater is being discharge into the water, there are excess nutrient thusencourage the growth of cyanobacteria and phytoplankton which lead to algalbloom and eutrophication. To prevent eutrophication, we should prevent directsewage discharge into the water.
The effect of algal bloom is the algal bloomis very toxic. Algal bloom caused the lake to become smelly. If animal drink thewater, the animal may die. The algal bloom caused the view of environmentbecome ugly because it’s turn the water into green colour. Furthermore, thealgal bloom caused the sunlight cannot penetrate into the bottom of the water.This increase the water turbidity.
2. The health of human Thealgal bloom or cyanobacteria in the water may cause death or poisoning tohuman. This caused cancer in human. The pollutants may contain toxics which areharmful to human. If human accidentally drink the untreated water, the personmay stomachache or diarrhea. Thus it’s caused sickness to human too.Furthermore its caused rashes or any allergies to human. For serious cases, ifinfant drink the water which is too high in nitrates it may cause dead to theinfant.
It is very important to purify the water before being consumed.Societies were being encouraged to buy water filter to filter and sterilize thewater before drinking. Therefore, water treatment and water purification arevery important to all of us to make sure our body health.
Furthermore, the algalbloom in lake will caused the growth of mosquitoes which will lead to dengue.Dengue is very dangerous because it can cause death. The untreated waterprovide a suitable environment for the growth of the mosquitoes. What is BOD ? Biochemical oxygen demandrefers to the amount of oxygen that is utilized when all of the organic matterin one litre of water is oxidized by living organisms in the water. Themeasurement of BOD meaning the level of pollution.
If there is large volume oforganic waste in the water, the quantity of aerobic bacteria working todecompose the waste will be many. Thus the BOD value will be high and thedissolved oxygen in the water decreases rapidly.Increases in BOD levelindicates a decreases in the dissolved oxygen levels. The dissolved oxygenlevels indicates the level of eutrophication. Lower BOD level indicates betterwater quality, higher BOD indicated poor water quality.Real situations CHINA—China’s coastalcity, Qingdao has been hit by a record algal bloom. However, the scale of thisyear’s algal bloom at 28,900 sq km was double the previous record bloom in2008.
· The algal bloom had turned the water ofthe lake to become green yellow water. This is the largest algal bloom everrecorded in China. The society in Qing Dao cleaned about 45million kilograms of algal each day. · It is caused by the fertilizers which beingwashed off into the lake. Next, the animal discharge also caused eutrophicationin China.
The government had taken many actions to stop this but eutrophicationstill happening in China. The discharged contain excess nitrate and phosphatewhich lead to the production of algal bloom in China. The algal prevent thesunlight from reaching the bottom of the lake and caused the marine fishes diebecause of insufficient of oxygen. GULF OF MEXICO — 2017Gulf of Mexico is the largest record ever after. Low oxygen areas appear yearlyoff the coast of Louisiana, but 2017’s “dead zone” is reportedly thelargest ever recorded since 1985.According to the National Oceanic andAtmospheric Administration, this year’s dead zone in the Gulf of Mexicomeasures 8,776 square miles, which is roughly the size of New Jersey.· The Dead zones are caused by nitrogenand phosphorous. These are the nutrients that being washed off from the farm.
Nitrogenand phosphorous stimulate massive algal growth in the Gulf that eventually sinksto the bottom and decomposes.· Dead Zone are caused by nitrogen andphosphorus which provide nutrients for the crops and being washed away by therainwater. The heavy rain washed away all the nutrients from US farm land. Theexcess nutrients stimulated the algae to grow. The algae used up the oxygen inwater which suffocating the marine fishes.
· Underwater video which the diverrecorded, its shown that the water is green black colour and full of manyalgae. The diver need to use flashlight in the underwater. There is no moreoxygen in the underwater. · Many fishes and crabs are suffocated anddie in the dead zone. · The water in dead zone is being measuredand found that the water has less than the oxygen needed to support basic fishlife. Deforestation Deforestation is theprocess of destroying a forest and replacing another activities especially foragriculture purposes. Our generation destroyed the earth in many ways. Oneexample of large scale damage is the destruction of forest.
Forests are cutdown to produce paper and other wood products. It’s used to plant palm treewhich can get a lot of profit by produce palm oil and sell it. The land areused to increase the land for other agriculture used.
Forests are veryimportant to all of us. Plants undergo respiration and provide oxygen for us. Causes of deforestation1. Chopping down the forests for fuel Fuels are important toall of us. Human used fuel as generating electric energy. The examples of solidfuels are charcoal. We use charcoal for barbeque. Besides that, charcoal isneeded every day for the cold weather country.
Fuel is burned and provided heatas heater for them. Besides, charcoal is used for cooking by burned them withfire. When the charcoal is burned, its released heat and fire. Coals are beingused as electricity generation by today. Next, let’s talk about liquid fuels.Liquid fuels are used to produce kinetic energies. Liquid fuels can be obtainedfrom the dead plants which under the multiple layers of earth. The examples ofliquid fuels are petroleum, diesel, gasoline and kerosene.
Petroleum and dieselare much more familiar to all of us because cars need petroleum to function. Ifa car is run out of petroleum it cannot function thus cannot moves. Next, fuelare very valuable and can earn a lot of profit which is very good foreconomics. Thus, human like to undergo deforestation and sell fuel to earnmoney. 2. Harvesting timber for commercial items Besides that, the treesare used for commercial used. Human can made a lot of things by using wood. Forinstance, wood or timber is used to made furniture such as tables, chairs andmore.
After the products being made, they sell the products thus earn money.It’s is better to chop down the trees and earn money then leaved it there.Next, woods are cut down to make papers. Papers are being used by everyone inthis world.
· One tree produces about 100 pounds (45kg) of toilet paper and about 83 million rolls are produced per day. · Since a typical 500-sheet packet of thepaper weighs 5 pounds, that’s 10,000 to 20,000 sheets per tree.Thus, many woods neededto be cut in order to make papers and toilet papers. Deforestation is alwayshappening all around the world. Furthermore, many woods are cut down to makefurniture. For instance, timbers are used to make woody chair or woody table.These products cost a lot of money and thus can gain a lot of profit.3.
More land available for housing After deforestation,more trees are cut down and thus it makes more land available for housing. Manyhouses can be built and thus it gain profit. Human’s activities causeddeforestation in order to earn money. · Research showed that about 3.
5 billionto 7 billion trees cut down each year . 4. Available land available for agricultureplantationsOne of the major causeof deforestation is the land are made for plantations of palm tree and rubbertree. For instance, palm tree are able to produce palm oil. Rubber treeproduces rubber which can make many products such as slippers, plastics andmore. These activities can gain a lot of profit. Method of deforestation1.
Burningtrees Deforestation can bedone by burning all the trees. For instance, farmer burned all the trees inorder for plantations. Furthermore, human can easily burned the forest by fire.Burning caused climate change and rise in temperature. This caused lots of problemsfor every organisms on this earth. 2. Cuttingtrees The next method ofdeforestation is to cut down all the trees.
This is not effective as burningtrees. Many workers are needed in order to cut down the trees. Large costs areneeded to pay for the workers. Meanwhile, human prefer to cut down trees byburning it with fire.
Effects ofdeforestation 1. Destroy animals’ habitat Forest is the naturalhabitat for all the wild animals. Deforestation destroyed their homes. Deforestationcaused around Million of species of animals lost their habitats. · Research result about eighty percent ofEarth’s land animals and plants live in forests, and many cannot survive becausetheir habitat is destroyed. · For instance, wild animals such as orangutan, Sumatran elephant, tiger and Sumatran rhino lost their homes.
Furthermore,deforestation caused the extinction of wild animals. Those wild animals diebecause they lost their habitat and thus cannot survive. For instance, kidsnowadays only can see wild animals such as tiger in zoo. Zookeeper kept thetiger safe because tigers are now facing extinction. Their homes are destroyedbecause of humans’ activities or natural events such as tsunami, earthquake andmore. 2. Climate change and global warming Deforestation can bedone by burning the trees.
Burning trees caused rise in temperature. Thiscaused greenhouse effect. If greenhouse effects are high until a level itcaused climate change. Furthermore, the effect of burning trees caused haze.
Haze are harmful to humans. Humans suffered diseases such as diarrhea orasthma. Asthma can caused dead.
The high temperature of earth may cause feverin humans. The body cannot adapt to high temperature thus caused rise intemperature of body and brain. 3.
Water cycle in earth Trees has importantrole in maintaining the water cycle. Transpiration that carried out by treesare helps in regulate the water cycle. The underground roots of trees absorbwater and it is carried up to the stem and to the leaves. This is for thesurvival of the trees. The excess water is returned back to atmosphere by thestomata of the leaves.
When the air around the earth becomes saturated withenough moisture, rain will fall. This begins the water cycle all over again. Real situations ofdeforestation Nigeria, Africa—–This country has the highest rate of deforestation in the world. Nigeria hasthe largest desertifications rate in the world with the loss of 55.
7% of itsforest. The forests in Nigeria all become desert. More than 55.5% of theforests are gone in Nigeria. Deforestation happened without planting the plantsback. Nigeria is a developing country, so lands are used for building ofhouses. Trees are cut down to cook foods.
The villagers in Nigeria cook foodsby using the woods. Trees are exported to other countries. · Chinese business came to Nigeria to makebusiness by cutting down trees in Nigeria and brought back to China. All thewild animals that lives in Nigeria were dead.
In Africa, they used wild animalsto earn money. For instance, peoples travelled to Africa to see wild animals.This caused increases in economics and gain profits.· Erosion happened in Nigeria becausetrees are cut down, thus the soil become loose and soft.
Nigeria lost homes,lives because of deforestation. · Deforestation also increase thetemperature in their country. The rate in which the temperature in Nigeria iskeep increasing because of global warming, Nigeria is now hotter than the lastten years.
· Trees are able to absorb carbon dioxidethat we produced while provide oxygen for us. In turn, we are cutting themdown, so carbon dioxide are not be able to absorb by trees. Carbon dioxideaccumulated in atmosphere which caused the temperature to increase. In-situ conservation In-situ conservation is the conservationof genetic sources of plants in their natural habitats.
This is to protect theplants from danger and to make sure that the species of plants continue tosurvive. This conservation also can protect the plants from other wild animalsor predators. Advantages of In-situ conservation · In-situ conservation can help tomaintain the population of plant species. It does not require any othertechnology.
· It allowed plants to adapt to newenvironment easily. · It is a good way to conservebiodiversity. · It is a natural way to maintain thepopulation of animals. No harming is involved. Disadvantages of In-situ conservation · It is a large project thus needed a lotof workers and land. · Genetic diversity keep decreasing. Ex-situ conservation Ex-situ conservation is the conservationof organism outside their natural habitat.
Some method of ex-situ conservationis gene banks, collecting living organisms for zoos for research. It is usedfor biological research. It helps to maintain domesticated plants which cannotsurvive in nature unaided. Advantages of ex-situ conservation · Human can easily measure the geneticdiversity.· Populations can be easily managed.
Disadvantages of ex-situ conservation · It needed a lot of financial tomaintain. Ozone Depletion