Roles passing all the exams. These different emphases

Roles do not specify exact expectations and only broad requirements within which a person must operate. For example, if you are enrolled in a college, the general expectation for a student that she or he must go to a class, take exams and so on. Beyond these basic expectations a great deal of variation is possible. The same is true for all statuses.

The variations within a status give, what is called as role orientation. The student role has broad outline and expectation each student may emphasis different aspect of this role. One may concentrate on the experience of going to a college; the other may concentrate only on acquiring a degree by passing all the exams.

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These different emphases have been termed as role orientation by sociologists. In large part, the organisation of society or what we call social structure is determined by the nature of these roles, the relationship between them and the distribution of scarce resources among people who play them. Different societies regard different statuses in different ways and thus, each society has its own distinct social structure. For instance, a doctor position might carry a higher status and prestige than a teacher in some society and it may be opposite in another. Although each society has its own social structure, social structures are based on elements which are common to all most all societies. As we mentioned earlier status carries a certain standing and prestige in society, with differing access to resources and rewards. These differences in social standing create a hierarchy.

The other elements are more complex as there is there a division of labour. In a complex society you are more likely to find that teacher has a specialised role than a priest and in a more differentiated society these will be a further sub-division in the role of a nursery teacher to a teacher who specialise in teaching only higher education and that-to a specialised subject.


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