“Enzymesare biological catalyst that speed up a chemical reaction but do not take partin that chemical reaction.”Enzymesare globular proteins which act on substrate in the form of large complexes. Enzymeshave specific amino acid sequence which determines the catalytic activity andfunction of the enzyme. Enzyme denatured when exposed to heat and chemicaldenaturants and loss their activity (Dunaway.
2008). Thecompound upon which enzyme act called as substrate and enzyme convert thatsubstrate into the products.Onceall enzyme thought to be proteins. In 1980s, the catalytic ability of enzymewere observed for example certain nucleic acids called as ribozymes whichcatalyze the RNAs.Anenzyme with large protein structure is composed of one or more amino acidchains, which are known as polypeptide chains.
Special sequence of amino aciddetermines the characteristic folding pattern of protein structure, which areessential for protein specificity.Ifthe temperature and PH of enzyme are not maintained in optimum range thenprotein structure denature and also lose its enzymatic ability. Sometimedenaturation is reversible but not always.Enzymesare very useful tool for the determination of location and severity ofdiseases. If tissue of the body is damaged, then enzyme released from thetissue into the serum and their level raised in serum.
Because they are enzymetherefore they are easily detectable than other many substance. For example:when pancreas damaged due to any disease then Amylase release from it and itslevel raised in serum. (WOHLGEMUTH et al., 2017)Enzymelevel measure in specimen of serum (plasma), urine, Gut secretions and otherfluids.
Enzymes names are given by its substrate orthe chemical reaction which enzyme catalyzes, with the word ending in –ase e.g. lactase, protease, Alcoholdehydrogenase and DNA polymerase (Payen et al., 1833). Thetop-level classification is:· Oxidoreductases: catalyze oxidation/reduction reactions EC 1· Transferases: transfer a functional group (e.g.
a methyl or phosphategroup) EC 2· Hydrolases: catalyze the hydrolysis of various bonds EC 3· Lyases:cleave various bonds by means other than hydrolysis and oxidation EC 4· Isomerases: catalyze isomerization changes within a single molecule EC 5· Ligases: join two molecules with covalent bonds EC6