are biological catalyst that speed up a chemical reaction but do not take part
in that chemical reaction.”
are globular proteins which act on substrate in the form of large complexes. Enzymes
have specific amino acid sequence which determines the catalytic activity and
function of the enzyme. Enzyme denatured when exposed to heat and chemical
denaturants and loss their activity (Dunaway. 2008).
compound upon which enzyme act called as substrate and enzyme convert that
substrate into the products.
all enzyme thought to be proteins. In 1980s, the catalytic ability of enzyme
were observed for example certain nucleic acids called as ribozymes which
catalyze the RNAs.
enzyme with large protein structure is composed of one or more amino acid
chains, which are known as polypeptide chains. Special sequence of amino acid
determines the characteristic folding pattern of protein structure, which are
essential for protein specificity.
the temperature and PH of enzyme are not maintained in optimum range then
protein structure denature and also lose its enzymatic ability. Sometime
denaturation is reversible but not always.
are very useful tool for the determination of location and severity of
diseases. If tissue of the body is damaged, then enzyme released from the
tissue into the serum and their level raised in serum. Because they are enzyme
therefore they are easily detectable than other many substance. For example:
when pancreas damaged due to any disease then Amylase release from it and its
level raised in serum. (WOHLGEMUTH et al., 2017)
level measure in specimen of serum (plasma), urine, Gut secretions and other
fluids. Enzymes names are given by its substrate or
the chemical reaction which enzyme catalyzes, with the word ending in –ase e.g. lactase, protease, Alcohol
dehydrogenase and DNA polymerase (Payen et al., 1833).
top-level classification is:
Oxidoreductases: catalyze oxidation/reduction reactions EC 1
Transferases: transfer a functional group (e.g. a methyl or phosphate
group) EC 2
Hydrolases: catalyze the hydrolysis of various bonds EC 3
cleave various bonds by means other than hydrolysis and oxidation EC 4
Isomerases: catalyze isomerization changes within a single molecule EC 5
Ligases: join two molecules with covalent bonds EC