scenario in India
Energy has become one of the important assets for a
developing country like India. According to the US Energy Information
Administration (EIA), India was the third largest energy consumer in the world
as per the data of 2013, after China and the United States of America. Although
India has a lot of fossil fuel resourses, the country largly depends on the
energy imports. In 2015, India was fourth largest crude oil and petroleum
consumer in world. This section deals with current amount of energy India is
producing and the sources vailable for the same.
(Source- US EIA)
As on 31.03.16, the estimated reserves of coal were
308.80 billion tonnes, an addition of 2.20 billion tonnes over the last year.
There has been an increase of 0.7% in the estimated coal reserves during the
year 2015-16 with Chattisgarh accounting for the maximum increase of 2.05%. The
estimated total reserves of lignite as on 31.03.16 was 44.59 billion Tonnes
against 44.12 billion tonnes on 31.03.15. India was the third top coal producer in 2015, according to the
BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2017. Nearly 80% of total electricity
generated (utility and captive) in India is from coal.
The average quality of the Indian coal is not very
high and this necessitates the import of high quality coal to meet the
requirement of steel plants. There has been an increasing trend in the import
of coal. Import of coal has steadily
increased from 43.08 MTs during 2006-07 to 199.88 MTs during 2015-16.
Crude oil and petroleum
Oil accounts for about 36 % of India’s total energy
consumption. The estimated reserves of crude oil in India as on 31.03.2016
stood at 621.10 million tonnes. The estimated reserves of Natural Gas in India
as on 31.03.2016 stood at 1227.23 Billion Cubic Meters. India is highly
dependent on import of crude oil. Net imports of crude oil have increased from
111.50 MTs during 2006-07 to 202.85 MTs during 2015-16. The import of petroleum
products has increased from 17.76 MT in 2006-07 to 28.30 MT during 2015-16.
The country’s annual crude oil production is peaked
at about 32 million tonne as against the current peak demand of about 110
million tonne. In the current scenario, India’s oil consumption by end of 2007
is expected to reach 136 million tonne(MT), of which domestic production will
be only 34 MT. India will have to pay an oil bill of roughly $50 billion,
assuming a weighted average price of $50 per barrel of crude. In 2003- 04,
against total export of $64 billion, oil imports accounted for $21 billion.
India imports 70% of its crude needs mainly from gulf nations.
Renewable energy sources
There is high potential for generation of renewable
energy from various sourceswind, solar, biomass, small hydro and cogeneration
bagasse. The total potential for renewable power generation in the country as
on 31.03.16 is estimated at 1198856 MW (Table 1.3). This includes wind power
potential of 102788 MW (8.57%) at 80m hub height, wind power potential of
302235 MW (25.21%) at 100 m hub height, SHP (small-hydro power) potential of
19749 MW (1.65%), Biomass power of 17,538 MW (1.46%), 5000 MW (0.42%) from
bagassebased cogeneration in sugar mills, 2556 MW (0.21%) from waste to energy
and solar power potential of 748990 MW (62.48%).
The all India gross electricity generation from
utilities was 6,70,654 Giga Watt-Hours (GWh) during 2006-07. It rose to
11,67,584 GWh during 2015-16. The
production of electricity from utilities has increased from 11,16,850 GWh during 2014-15 to 11,67,584 GWh during
2015-16, registering an annual growth rate of about 4.54%. Total Electricity generation in the country,
from utilities and non-utilities taken together during 2015-16 was 13,35,956
GWh. Out of the total electricity generated through utilities, 9,43,013 GWh was
generated from thermal and 1,21,377 GWh was from hydro and 37,414 GWh was
generated from nuclear sources. Total output from non-utilities was 1,68,372
(Source-Indian energy statistics 2016, BEEindia, BP
Statistical Review of World Energy, Energy Information Administration)
Crisis in India
Energy consumption in India is characterised by low
per capita level and a large disparity between urban and rural areas. Primary
energy consumption in India more than doubled between 1990 and 2013, reaching
an estimated 775 million tons of oil equivalent. The country has the
second-largest population in the world, at nearly 1.3 billion people in 2014,
growing about 1.4% each year since 2004, according to World Bank data. At the same time, India’s per capita energy
consumption is one-third of the global average, according to the International
Energy Agency (IEA), indicating room for higher energy demand in the long term
as the country continues its economic development.
India had more than 300 gigawatts of installed
electricity generation capacity connected to the national network in early
2016, mostly from coal-powered plants. Because of insufficient fuel supply and
power generation and transmission capacity, the country suffers from a severe