D1. care needs are met. My placement does

D1. The
relevance of the title to children’s care is that it is extremely important
that children are cared for and kept safe in an early years setting. Children
have the right to be cared for by trusted adults who can meet their needs. Firstly, a child’s needs must always come first. When
caring for children it is important to give help and support as early as
possible before concerns grow and become more damaging.

example, in my placement the staff make sure they follow the policies and
procedures at all times, to prevent harm towards the children and to ensure
that care is appropriate, safe and consistent. Safeguarding covers many
different aspects from making sure all equipment, toys are safe, and that the children’s
individual care needs are met. My placement does regular risk assessments, making
sure the setting is clean, keeping the building secure, fire safety and fire
drills are done regularly and nappy changing is consistent. This means that
effective care can be given and
promotes health and wellbeing. Good standards of hygiene helps to prevent the
spread of infections and illness. Staff to child ratios are also
relevant to safeguarding children and maintaining good care. ‘The adult to child ratio should never exceed
one to four’, (page 165, Bruce and Meggitt) as the practitioner cannot
supervise all the children meaning their care may be put at risk. ‘Children have the right to be kept safe and
not hurt or neglected.’ (UN Convention of Rights of the Child.) Children’s
safety should always be put first as they are vulnerable and need cared for by
trusted adults. All children have the right to be cared for in a safe environment,
regardless of their ability and individual needs. ‘All early years workers and those who work with children have a duty
to protect them as much as possible from injury and illness.’ (Page 113, Bruce
and Meggitt).

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In relation to the title, children’s well-being should be supported with effective
practice which is by knowing each child and observing any changes or concerns.
For example, using the method of reporting and recording. This means recording
anything concerning and reporting any concerns to the designated safeguarding
officer. This ensures the EYP is taking a holistic approach to the child and
observing any changes in behaviour. It is a legal requirement to record and
report any accidents or injuries within the setting. When concerns are recorded
and reported, it ‘can be used as an aid to risk assessment,
helping to develop solutions to potential risks.’ (Reporting accidents,
incidents and diseases document). This helps the EYP to build a picture of what might be
affecting the child and can be used to identify and action support. In addition
the EYP must be able to manage children’s behaviour. Observing children helps
the EYP able to identify children’s behaviours and to be able to support them
appropriately. Effective practice means always talking to parents because there
may be a reason to the child’s behaviour, for example moving home, a new baby,
parents separating. So, it is key to always communicate with parents and not
judge or jump to conclusions. With positive family partnerships, children can
feel safe and secure because there is continuity. Children are vulnerable so it
is important that the EYP makes sure that children are valued and welcomed. If
the environment is not happy, safe and welcoming, children may lack confidence
and self-esteem and parents may not feel able to come and talk about any issues
or concerns.


example of how practitioners can support children’s well-being is by carrying
out the role of a key person effectively and understanding the role. The key
person is extremely important to a child’s well-being as they may have an
impact on how a child ‘responds to
difficulties and relationships later in life.'(Page 100, Bruce and Meggitt).
A key person will have more time for specific children compared to other staff
members, which supports the children and helps them to feel comforted. The key
person will also meet children’s individual needs such as toileting, dressing
and simply being there when needed. The role of key
person is to help children to feel safe, happy and stimulated as well as to
feel secure, safe and comfortable with the practitioners. But parents also need
to have confidence in their children’s well-being and this is why the key
person should also promote their role as active partners too. It is good for
the key person to create a positive bond with parents so that parents feel
comfortable going to the key person about any issues or concerns regarding the
child; this protects the child as the key person and parents are working as a
team to provide the best approach to the child.


In reference to the title, procedures relate to the safeguarding of children
through following the ‘food hygiene’ procedures of the setting. This consists
of washing hands before preparing any food, making sure all surfaces and
equipment is disinfected, storing food correctly and disposing of any waste.
The EYFS states that ‘managers/leaders
must be confident that those responsible for preparing and handling food are
competent to do so.’ (Page 178, Bruce and Meggitt). Food hygiene keeps
children safe from bacteria and viruses. It can be spread quickly from child to
child if basic food hygiene rules aren’t followed. Furthermore children share
everything in a nursery setting, such as toys, toilets and food, this spreads
bacteria and can cause illness to a child. Food should be stored at the correct
temperature in dry places and checked to see if it’s within the use-by date. Practitioners
that are involved in food preparation should have their Food Safety and Hygiene
Training to prepare children’s food correctly. This is to ensure they also do
it safely. All surfaces should be disinfected before and after food is prepared
on it; to prevent germs spreading and all utensils are clean and put in the
right places. In relation to the title, this is why food hygiene is a very
important aspect of procedures.


procedure that relates to the title of safeguarding children is ‘administering medication’.
‘All medicines must be stored in their
original containers, clearly labelled and kept in a locked cupboard
inaccessible to children.’ (Page 214, Bruce and Meggitt). This means that
the medicines are all kept in one place and easier for the practitioners to get
to for quicker access. All medicine should be its correct label with the dates
and details clearly written by the GP. Practitioners should also keep a record
of what medicine a child has been given; including the child’s name, medicine
dosage, time and date. This procedure ensures children have their individual
needs met as well as ensuring they aren’t given the wrong medication or too
much medication.


In my placement the
procedure for giving any child medicine is that the parent must sign a form to
give consent for the nursery to give their child medicine. The key person must
check all details carefully, the child’s name must be clearly printed on the medicine.
The prescribed dosage should also be the same on the medication as is indicated
on the completed sheet. The completed sheet should include the type of medicine
to be administered, the date and time administered and the name and signature of
person administering the medicine and a witness.  The nursery should check that the medication
is within its use by date and that the prescription has been issue by a GP
within the previous month. This is to ensure the children are given the right
medicine and there will hopefully be no problems.


In relation to the title, routines can support children’s personal safety. For
example, nappy changing. A child’s rights should be respected regarding their
privacy; meaning nappy changing should be discussed with the key person and
parents. Children should be safeguarded whilst changing the nappy, for example,
ensuring everything is sanitary and hygienic such as changing surfaces and ‘never leave a baby or toddler unsupervised
on the changing mat or on a high surface’ (Page 113, Bruce and Meggitt).
Being changed
frequently ensures that children don’t get nappy rash. Practitioners should use
the correct personal protective equipment such as disposable aprons and gloves
to prevent the risk of contamination between the practitioner and child. The
child’s own wipes should also be used in case the skin is sensitive. Nappy
cream should also only be used with parents’ consent in case the child reacts
to the cream. Any clothes that are soiled should be put in nappy bags, tied up
and then put in the children’s bags to be taken home and washed. A nappy record
should also be filled in so the practitioners know when a child was last
changed and if they were wet, soiled or dry. ‘Young children are not left in soiled or wet nappies, ‘pull-ups’ or pants
as we have a ‘duty of care’ towards children’s needs and this could be
interpreted as neglect.’ (SA Priory Personal
Care Policy, March 2017).


procedure in my setting also safeguards by stating that a member of staff
shouldn’t be left alone when toileting children. ‘Staff are regularly trained regarding child protection and health and
safety, (which may include manual handling), and are fully aware of infection
control’ (Northamptonshire County Council toileting guidelines, 2015). In
my setting, the manager and room leaders let students change nappies once they
reach the age of 17 so they’re allowed the chance to learn but must always have
a practitioner with them when doing so, this is to ensure they’re following the
safeguarding guidelines and have a helping hand when needed.


washing routines also safeguards children as it prevents bacteria being spread,
causing illnesses and diseases. Children explore using their hands, putting
hands and objects in their mouths; if their hands aren’t clean they could get
infected. Children should wash their hands frequently, especially after going
to the toilet, before and after eating and after playing outside. Using
disposable paper towels will also prevent infection from spreading as the
children aren’t sharing and reusing the same towel. Children should use
anti-bacterial soap as it is the most effective way of preventing any illnesses
and getting rid of germs. Settings should also have separate areas for hand
washing and washing up so there is a lower risk of contamination. Once
practitioners have prepared food they should wash their hands before having any
contact with children in case there is a chance of passing something on.
Children should be taught about hand washing and it will help prevent infection
from spreading and keep children safe from germs.


In relation to the title, attachment relates to safeguarding. For example John
Bowlby’s attachment theory. John Bowlby said that the ‘theory of attachment suggests that children come into the world
biologically pre-programmed to form attachments with others, because this will
help them to survive.’ (Bowlby’s Attachment Theory, 2007). The attachment
theory is basically a person’s emotional bond to another person. An attachment
is compulsory to a child and critical to a child’s development. The bond between
children and their parents sets the foundations for brain development; not only
in the earliest stages of life but throughout their childhood. The bond helps the
child to feel comfortable in places other than the home setting and with other
people besides the parents. A key person contributes to the attachment theory
as the key person and a child will usually have the strongest bond within the
nursery setting. In a setting, practitioners can introduce various areas that
children can explore and engage in, such as a home corner to help children feel
more at ease. The setting should be a warm, welcoming environment. Practitioners
need to give children plenty of attention to help create a stable attachment
and make sure that they are positive so children feel more confident talking to
them. Children may also have comforting items such as soft toys or blankets
that they are attached to. They could be attached to them due to it reminding
them of home or family. This might be a comfort whilst the child is away from
their parents for a short amount of time. A child will feel safe and secure in
their setting if they have attention, warmth and all their other necessary
needs. Children who have secure attachments tend to be happier, more trusting
and more socially competent; they have better relationships with parents,
friends and family. They also do better in school, stay healthier and create
more rewarding relationships later on in life. Attachment is extremely
important to young children as they need safety and if they don’t feel that, the
distress of separation can push different behaviours that are negative. They
may act out to get more attention from individuals and later in life it may ‘affect the way they will later conduct romantic
relationships, friendships or deal with authority figures.’ (Why are early
bonds so important, 2014).


In relation to safeguarding, inclusive practice is implemented. Inclusive
practice is the development of a positive approach to equality. This means that
any issues that arise the children will have a right to be supported and
treated as equals. Children will feel more valued and comforted knowing that
they aren’t being singled out or being treat different compared to others.
Inclusive practice recognises the diversity of children and that they should
all still be able to achieve and participate at nursery and school.



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