Therelevance of the title to children’s care is that it is extremely importantthat children are cared for and kept safe in an early years setting. Childrenhave the right to be cared for by trusted adults who can meet their needs. Firstly, a child’s needs must always come first. Whencaring for children it is important to give help and support as early aspossible before concerns grow and become more damaging. Forexample, in my placement the staff make sure they follow the policies andprocedures at all times, to prevent harm towards the children and to ensurethat care is appropriate, safe and consistent. Safeguarding covers manydifferent aspects from making sure all equipment, toys are safe, and that the children’sindividual care needs are met. My placement does regular risk assessments, makingsure the setting is clean, keeping the building secure, fire safety and firedrills are done regularly and nappy changing is consistent.
This means thateffective care can be given andpromotes health and wellbeing. Good standards of hygiene helps to prevent thespread of infections and illness. Staff to child ratios are alsorelevant to safeguarding children and maintaining good care.
‘The adult to child ratio should never exceedone to four’, (page 165, Bruce and Meggitt) as the practitioner cannotsupervise all the children meaning their care may be put at risk. ‘Children have the right to be kept safe andnot hurt or neglected.’ (UN Convention of Rights of the Child.
) Children’ssafety should always be put first as they are vulnerable and need cared for bytrusted adults. All children have the right to be cared for in a safe environment,regardless of their ability and individual needs. ‘All early years workers and those who work with children have a dutyto protect them as much as possible from injury and illness.’ (Page 113, Bruceand Meggitt). D2.In relation to the title, children’s well-being should be supported with effectivepractice which is by knowing each child and observing any changes or concerns.
For example, using the method of reporting and recording. This means recordinganything concerning and reporting any concerns to the designated safeguardingofficer. This ensures the EYP is taking a holistic approach to the child andobserving any changes in behaviour. It is a legal requirement to record andreport any accidents or injuries within the setting. When concerns are recordedand reported, it ‘can be used as an aid to risk assessment,helping to develop solutions to potential risks.’ (Reporting accidents,incidents and diseases document). This helps the EYP to build a picture of what might beaffecting the child and can be used to identify and action support. In additionthe EYP must be able to manage children’s behaviour.
Observing children helpsthe EYP able to identify children’s behaviours and to be able to support themappropriately. Effective practice means always talking to parents because theremay be a reason to the child’s behaviour, for example moving home, a new baby,parents separating. So, it is key to always communicate with parents and notjudge or jump to conclusions. With positive family partnerships, children canfeel safe and secure because there is continuity. Children are vulnerable so itis important that the EYP makes sure that children are valued and welcomed.
Ifthe environment is not happy, safe and welcoming, children may lack confidenceand self-esteem and parents may not feel able to come and talk about any issuesor concerns. Anotherexample of how practitioners can support children’s well-being is by carryingout the role of a key person effectively and understanding the role. The keyperson is extremely important to a child’s well-being as they may have animpact on how a child ‘responds todifficulties and relationships later in life.'(Page 100, Bruce and Meggitt).A key person will have more time for specific children compared to other staffmembers, which supports the children and helps them to feel comforted. The keyperson will also meet children’s individual needs such as toileting, dressingand simply being there when needed. The role of keyperson is to help children to feel safe, happy and stimulated as well as tofeel secure, safe and comfortable with the practitioners.
But parents also needto have confidence in their children’s well-being and this is why the keyperson should also promote their role as active partners too. It is good forthe key person to create a positive bond with parents so that parents feelcomfortable going to the key person about any issues or concerns regarding thechild; this protects the child as the key person and parents are working as ateam to provide the best approach to the child. C1.In reference to the title, procedures relate to the safeguarding of childrenthrough following the ‘food hygiene’ procedures of the setting. This consistsof washing hands before preparing any food, making sure all surfaces andequipment is disinfected, storing food correctly and disposing of any waste.The EYFS states that ‘managers/leadersmust be confident that those responsible for preparing and handling food arecompetent to do so.’ (Page 178, Bruce and Meggitt).
Food hygiene keepschildren safe from bacteria and viruses. It can be spread quickly from child tochild if basic food hygiene rules aren’t followed. Furthermore children shareeverything in a nursery setting, such as toys, toilets and food, this spreadsbacteria and can cause illness to a child. Food should be stored at the correcttemperature in dry places and checked to see if it’s within the use-by date.
Practitionersthat are involved in food preparation should have their Food Safety and HygieneTraining to prepare children’s food correctly. This is to ensure they also doit safely. All surfaces should be disinfected before and after food is preparedon it; to prevent germs spreading and all utensils are clean and put in theright places. In relation to the title, this is why food hygiene is a veryimportant aspect of procedures. Anotherprocedure that relates to the title of safeguarding children is ‘administering medication’.’All medicines must be stored in theiroriginal containers, clearly labelled and kept in a locked cupboardinaccessible to children.
‘ (Page 214, Bruce and Meggitt). This means thatthe medicines are all kept in one place and easier for the practitioners to getto for quicker access. All medicine should be its correct label with the datesand details clearly written by the GP. Practitioners should also keep a recordof what medicine a child has been given; including the child’s name, medicinedosage, time and date. This procedure ensures children have their individualneeds met as well as ensuring they aren’t given the wrong medication or toomuch medication.
In my placement theprocedure for giving any child medicine is that the parent must sign a form togive consent for the nursery to give their child medicine. The key person mustcheck all details carefully, the child’s name must be clearly printed on the medicine.The prescribed dosage should also be the same on the medication as is indicatedon the completed sheet.
The completed sheet should include the type of medicineto be administered, the date and time administered and the name and signature ofperson administering the medicine and a witness. The nursery should check that the medicationis within its use by date and that the prescription has been issue by a GPwithin the previous month. This is to ensure the children are given the rightmedicine and there will hopefully be no problems. C2.In relation to the title, routines can support children’s personal safety. Forexample, nappy changing.
A child’s rights should be respected regarding theirprivacy; meaning nappy changing should be discussed with the key person andparents. Children should be safeguarded whilst changing the nappy, for example,ensuring everything is sanitary and hygienic such as changing surfaces and ‘never leave a baby or toddler unsupervisedon the changing mat or on a high surface’ (Page 113, Bruce and Meggitt).Being changedfrequently ensures that children don’t get nappy rash. Practitioners should usethe correct personal protective equipment such as disposable aprons and glovesto prevent the risk of contamination between the practitioner and child. Thechild’s own wipes should also be used in case the skin is sensitive. Nappycream should also only be used with parents’ consent in case the child reactsto the cream. Any clothes that are soiled should be put in nappy bags, tied upand then put in the children’s bags to be taken home and washed. A nappy recordshould also be filled in so the practitioners know when a child was lastchanged and if they were wet, soiled or dry.
‘Young children are not left in soiled or wet nappies, ‘pull-ups’ or pantsas we have a ‘duty of care’ towards children’s needs and this could beinterpreted as neglect.’ (SA Priory PersonalCare Policy, March 2017). Theprocedure in my setting also safeguards by stating that a member of staffshouldn’t be left alone when toileting children. ‘Staff are regularly trained regarding child protection and health andsafety, (which may include manual handling), and are fully aware of infectioncontrol’ (Northamptonshire County Council toileting guidelines, 2015). Inmy setting, the manager and room leaders let students change nappies once theyreach the age of 17 so they’re allowed the chance to learn but must always havea practitioner with them when doing so, this is to ensure they’re following thesafeguarding guidelines and have a helping hand when needed.
Handwashing routines also safeguards children as it prevents bacteria being spread,causing illnesses and diseases. Children explore using their hands, puttinghands and objects in their mouths; if their hands aren’t clean they could getinfected. Children should wash their hands frequently, especially after goingto the toilet, before and after eating and after playing outside. Usingdisposable paper towels will also prevent infection from spreading as thechildren aren’t sharing and reusing the same towel.
Children should useanti-bacterial soap as it is the most effective way of preventing any illnessesand getting rid of germs. Settings should also have separate areas for handwashing and washing up so there is a lower risk of contamination. Oncepractitioners have prepared food they should wash their hands before having anycontact with children in case there is a chance of passing something on.Children should be taught about hand washing and it will help prevent infectionfrom spreading and keep children safe from germs. B1.In relation to the title, attachment relates to safeguarding. For example JohnBowlby’s attachment theory.
John Bowlby said that the ‘theory of attachment suggests that children come into the worldbiologically pre-programmed to form attachments with others, because this willhelp them to survive.’ (Bowlby’s Attachment Theory, 2007). The attachmenttheory is basically a person’s emotional bond to another person. An attachmentis compulsory to a child and critical to a child’s development. The bond betweenchildren and their parents sets the foundations for brain development; not onlyin the earliest stages of life but throughout their childhood.
The bond helps thechild to feel comfortable in places other than the home setting and with otherpeople besides the parents. A key person contributes to the attachment theoryas the key person and a child will usually have the strongest bond within thenursery setting. In a setting, practitioners can introduce various areas thatchildren can explore and engage in, such as a home corner to help children feelmore at ease. The setting should be a warm, welcoming environment. Practitionersneed to give children plenty of attention to help create a stable attachmentand make sure that they are positive so children feel more confident talking tothem. Children may also have comforting items such as soft toys or blanketsthat they are attached to.
They could be attached to them due to it remindingthem of home or family. This might be a comfort whilst the child is away fromtheir parents for a short amount of time. A child will feel safe and secure intheir setting if they have attention, warmth and all their other necessaryneeds.
Children who have secure attachments tend to be happier, more trustingand more socially competent; they have better relationships with parents,friends and family. They also do better in school, stay healthier and createmore rewarding relationships later on in life. Attachment is extremelyimportant to young children as they need safety and if they don’t feel that, thedistress of separation can push different behaviours that are negative.
Theymay act out to get more attention from individuals and later in life it may ‘affect the way they will later conduct romanticrelationships, friendships or deal with authority figures.’ (Why are earlybonds so important, 2014). B2.In relation to safeguarding, inclusive practice is implemented. Inclusivepractice is the development of a positive approach to equality. This means thatany issues that arise the children will have a right to be supported andtreated as equals. Children will feel more valued and comforted knowing thatthey aren’t being singled out or being treat different compared to others.
Inclusive practice recognises the diversity of children and that they shouldall still be able to achieve and participate at nursery and school.