Cytokinins cytokinin treated plants at later stages of

Cytokinins have proven to be the most promising growth
regulator in increasing the total flower number and seeds. Benzyl adenine (BA)
and thidiazuron treatment resulted in a drastic increase in number of flowers
and female flowers along with induced bisexual flowers in J. curcas (Pan et al. 2011; Pan et al. 2016). However, the fruiting rate was
relatively low i.e. 2-3 folds as compared to increased female flowers with upto
9-10 folds. Also, there was a reduction in 100 seed weight in fruits formed
after cytokinin treatment (Pan et al. 2011; Chen et al. 2014). This reduction
in seed weight led to compromised seed yield even after the application of phytohormones
such as cytokinins. Apart from Jatropha, reduction in seed yield after
cytokinin application has also been reported in other plant species such as
soybean, jojoba and lupin (Ma
et al. 1998; Nagel et al. 2001; Prat et al. 2008). However, the reasons for reduction in seed yield have not
been investigated. We hypothesize that the compromised seed yield could be a
consequence of the inability of the photosynthetic source to fully support sink
i.e. seed development in spite of having significantly increased number of
flowers. The reduction in final seed formation is also due to
abortion of floral buds in cytokinin treated plants at later stages of
development because all female flowers do not transit to formation of fruits
due to higher flower abortion rate, which may be due to non-fulfillment of
increased requirement of sink (Pan et al. 2016; Yashima et al. 2005). Limited
supply of photo assimilates to increased flowers is due to increased
competition among leaves, stems, nodules and reproductive organs which might be
the possible reasons for flower abortion (Brun and Betts 1984; Antos and
Wiebold 1984).  Also, the negative
correlation between fruiting rate and seed formation with the number of female
and bisexual flowers per inflorescence on plants treated with cytokinins, may
be a result of either the shortage of photosynthetic products or reduced source
to sink strength (Pan et al. 2011; Pan et al. 2016).     

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