Contents of group. 5 A2. Learning. 6 ii.


Section A.. 2
A1. Groups. 2
I. 2
ii. Characteristic of
group. 3
iii. Functions of formal group. 4
iv. Stages of group. 5
A2. Learning. 6
ii. Case. 7
iv. Theories of learning. 8
A3. Attitudes. 9
i. 9
ii. Case. 10
iii. Characteristic of
good leadership. 11
iv. Nature vs nurture. 12
v. theories of motivation. 13
A4. Leadership. 15
References. 16


organizational behaviour

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Section A

A1. Groups

I. definition

 A group consists of two or more
person who interacts with each other consciously for the achievement of certain
common objections. For example a group of drama students puts on a play or a
group of physical students working on a group research project and also if a
group of music students puts on a concert share the same common objective.



















ii. Characteristic of group

 Infrequent interaction.
According to the case study the joint venture is multinational. As the joint
venture is formed between people from Japan, the United States and South
America. It’s hard for them to interact with the other personnel frequently.
Therefore to interact with each other they have to schedule their meeting a lot

Weak emotional ties between persons. As the joint venture includes
people from different countries and companies the people would not know each
other’s personal background as they have no close connection with each other.

Goal or Activity orientation. The joint venture company sells
coffins. Their objective is to gain more sales which is high demand. So they
gather in a meeting to discuss about their products and how to increase demand
for it. All of their decision is made to achieve their objectives.

Impersonal or formal. According to the Case study it is very clear
that the group is a formal. As it consists high level employees from the three
companies. So personal feelings are not involved in this venture.














iii. Functions of formal group

A formal group is created within an organization to complete a
specific role or task. There are two basic functions of a formal group; it is
organizational functions and individual functions. In organizational functions
it accomplish complex tasks beyond capabilities of individuals also it generate
creative or new idea and solutions. In organizational function the coordinate
interdepartmental efforts and provide a problem-solving mechanism for complex
problems requiring assessment and varied information. Moreover it implements
complex decisions as well as socializes and train newcomers.

Moreover in individual functions it satisfies the individual’s
needs for affiliation. also in this functions it give individual’s an
opportunity to test and share their perception of social well as it
reduce the individual’s feelings of insecurity and powerlessness and anxieties.
Also individual function provide a problem-solving mechanism for personal and
interpersonal problems.  



















iv. Stages of group


Group development means the stages that work groups go through as
they evolve and grow. The group development has a standard sequence of five
groups. These stages are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.                                       

















 In forming stage the group defines the expectations from members,
the environment in which it operates and the reasons for its existence. Also
the members gets introduced to each well as in storming the members
joggle for influence and positions. Sometimes there may be arguments and cross
argument for finalizing a group structure. Also in norming the group member
recognize the need for mutuality and interdependence. And also they negotiate
their difference and arrive at workplace approaches, like upholding the
interest of the group. Moreover in performing stage after reaching a consensus
on group norm, members start working together to achieve the intended goals. The
last stage that performing in group development is adjourning for permanent
work groups. In this stage the group prepares for its disbandment.

A2. Learning


Learning is a process through which
ones capacity or a disposition is changed as a result of experience. Also
learning can be defined as any relatively permanent change in behavior that
occurs as a result of practice and experience. For example, in small children,
non-conscious learning processes are as natural as breathing.























ii. Case

 Due to the diverse nature of
the group the decisions are made on majority percentage. Even though the group
contains professionals, majority does not always tend to be right. Secondly
communication is much tougher as each would have their own opinions and ideas
which other might now agree with. The joint venture includes companies from
different geographical locations where the consumer demands are different. So
decisions could come with a positive and a negative feedback.   However being diverse also means having more
potential. Complex decisions are easy to crack for a diverse group as they have
more knowledge. In addition diverse teams tend to be more creative. Which
according to the case study shows that during their meeting to make the
decision members gave opinions from their area of expertise and as an outcome
it generates new ideas for the venture.


















learner perceives or
develops and idea of what has to be done

iii. Learning process  





external or internal
coach important here  

processing in the brain
how do we put the info
into a response






move or movement






learning takes Patience and times. and always
involves some kind of experience. these experience can be derived from inside
the body or they can be sensory, arising outside. procedural learning or
knowing how concerns your ability to carry out particular skilled actions such
as riding a horse. declarative learning 
concerns your store of factual knowledge such as an understanding of the
history of our use of the horse.

morover the behavioural changes that take place
due to learning are relatively permanent. behaviour can be changed temporarily
by many other kind of factors also in ways which we would not like to call
learning. these other factors include growing up or maturation like in
children, aging, alcohole, drugs, and fatigue.

as well as learning cannot be observed directly.
we can only observe a person’s behaviour also draw the inference from this that
learning has taken place. so a distinction has to be made between performance
and learning. performance is evaluated by some quantitative and some
qualitative measures of output.


iv Theories of learning

 The theories of learning means a conceptual framework describing
how knowledge is absorbed, also processed and retained during learning. Also
environmental influence and cognitive, emotional, as well as prior experience,
all play a part in how understanding or a word view, is required or changed
also knowledge and skills retained. There are 4 main theories of learning.
There are classical conducting theory, operant conditioning theory, social
learning theory, and shaping behavior theory.

The classical conditioning is a type of conditioning in which an
individual responds to some other stimulus that would not ordinarily produce
such as response. As well as their behavior cannot be elicited in response to a
specific, identifiable event but it is generally emitted. In an organizational
setting we can see classical conducting operating. For example, at one
manufacturing plant, every time the top executive from the head office would
make a visit, and the plant management will clean up the administrative offices
and wash the windows.  

Moreover the operant conditioning is a type which desired behavior
leads to a reward or prevents a punishment. Also operant conditioning argues
that the behavior is a function of its consequences. The behavior is likely to
be repeated if the consequences are favorable. But if the consequence are
unfavorable it is not likely to be repeated. But if the consequence are
unfavorable it is not likely to be repeated. For example, an employee is
getting criticized in front of the whole office by his boss and having certain
freedoms taken away as a consequence to her bad behavior at work will motivate
her to stay in line and be more sincere.

In social learning theory is a type which individuals can learn by
observing what will happens to other people also just by being told about
something, as well as, by direct experience. Much of what we have learned comes
observing and imitating models-parents, supervisors, teachers and film stars.
And also this theory assumes that learning is just not a case of environmental
determinism or of individual determinism. Rather it can be a blending of both.
For example, television commercials suggest that drinking a certain beverage or
using a particular hair oil will make us popular and win the admiration of
attractive people. In depending upon the component processes involved like as
attention or motivation, we may model the behavior shown in the commercial and
may buy the products being advertised.   

The last theory of learning process is shaping behavior theory. In
this theory the learning process of individual takes place on the job also as
prior to the job. In any organization manager will be concerned with how they
can teach the employees to behave in the ways that will be most beneficial to
the organization. For example, if an employee who regularly leaves the office
half hour early starts leaving the office only twenty five minutes early, the
manager can reinforce his behavior so that it comes more close to desired
behavior to leave the office in time.














A3. Attitudes

i. definition

Attitudes are evaluative judgments or statement concerning objects,
events, or people. Attitudes are made up of three main components. First the
affective component is the most critical part of the attitude as it is cells
upon the feelings or emotions. Then the cognitive component is made up of
belief in the way things are. Last component is behavioral. This describes the
intention to behave in certain way towards something or someone.




ii. Case

 As José was the chair of the
task force is more close to the product than any other member of the venture.
This means he knows more about the product than anyone else. If I were in the
position of José I would not all incorporating current design for the product.
As the joint venture was established for a specific reason which is
revolutionize the existing product. And tell the members that the presidents
would be satisfied with incorporating the current design and to discuss further
about revolutionizing the existing product.










iii. Characteristic of good leadership

  Good leadership demands
behavioral characteristic and emotional strengths which can draw deeply on a
leader’s mental and spiritual reserves. There are many characteristic of a good
leadership. In this it includes recognizes the value in other people so
continually invest in others. Like a good leaders see a large part of their
roles as developing peoples and new leaders. In an organization the leadership
development take place and leaders begin to share their experience both
negative and positive, with others.

Secondly shares information. There will be a tendency of some
leaders to hold information. Because information is power. A good leader will
uses this to the teams benefits knowing the more information the team has
collectively the stronger the team. Moreover in a good leadership the leaders
are not afraid for others to succeed. A good leaders will realize that some
follower will outgrow the leader’s ability to develop them any further. However
good leaders aren’t threatened by another’s success. They will be willing to
celebrate as those around them succeed. 

Thirdly they serve others expecting nothing in return. A good
leaders will have a heart of service. They truly love and value people and they
will want to help others for the good of the one being helped.




iv. Nature vs nurture

nature versus nurture debates one of the oldest philosophical issues within
psychology. The nature refers to all of the genes and also hereditary factor
that influence who we are from our personality characteristic to our physical
appearance. As well as the nurture refers to all the environmental variables
that impact who we are, including our early childhood experience, and our
social relationship, how we were raise, also our surrounding culture.


v. theories of motivation

.Motivation can be defined as an urge
in an individual to perform goal directed behavior. Therefore, motivation may
not be inflicted from outside but it is an intrinsic desire in a man to achieve
the targeted goal through activity or performance.

There are three main theories of motivation. they are Maslow’s
theory, Herzberg’s two factors or motivation Hygiene theory and McGregor’s
theory X and theory Y. first in Maslow theory the Abraham Maslow is considered
father of humanistic movement that he observed the lives of creative and health
people to develop is theory. This is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model.




Self-esteem needs

Love and belongingness needs

Safety and security needs



The physiological needs required preserving human life. These needs
includes food, shelter nad clothing. Also these needs must be at least partly
before higher level needs emerge. Once these physiological needs are satisfied
the safety and security needs emerge and become dominant. These needs imply for
economic independence and for self-preservation. After these needs are
satisfied then a sense of belonging and acceptance become predominant in
motivating behavior. These needs are for friendship, love and exchange of
feelings. Then the self-esteem needs are concerned with awareness of
self-importance and recognition from others. This need consists of such thing
as self-respect, power, achievement, and self-confidence. The last
self-actualization needs involve self-fulfillment or achieving what one
considers to become everything, what that one considered to be his mission in

The second theory is Herzberg’s two factors or motivation Hygiene
theory. Herzberg proposed the motivation and hygiene theory, this is also known
as the two factor theory (1959) of job satisfaction. According to his theory,
people are influenced by two set of factors. They are motivator factor and
hygiene factors. The Hygiene factors are related to the work environment.
According to the Herzberg the following factors are included in this category.

Pay and benefit

Company policy and administrative



Relationship with co-workers.

These factors do not produce any
growth in the employee’s output; they only prevent losses in the employee’s
performance due to work restrictions. For these reason, this factors are called
‘maintenance factors’ because it is necessary to maintenance reasonable level
of satisfaction in employees.

The second factor in Herzberg is
motivating factor. These factors have a positive power to satisfy and produce
high performance. This included six factors that motivate the employees to



Work itself



Most of the factors are related to
job contents. And an increase in these factors will satisfy the workers.

The third factor is McGregor’s
theory X and theory Y. He has presented two opposite views of human behavior in
the organization. Also it is the form of what his cells theory ‘X’ and theory
‘Y’. The theory ‘X’ represents the traditional view of the human and utilizing
inner motivation. The theory ‘Y’ represents a dynamic and modern nature of
human beings.

To conclude motivation theories is
an important role for manager to achieve their objectives and to increase the
effectiveness of the employees. 

A4. Leadership

 Leading a group or a team is
a real skill that takes time, thought and dedication. Leadership is the most
studied aspect of organization and business because it is the one overarching
topic that makes the difference between failure and success. At times it may
seem overwhelmingly complex, but by focusing on some fundamentals you will find
that you can lead your team with skill and confidence.

Jennifer Lynn Lopez born in July 24, 1969. Her nickname is J.Lo,
and she is an American singer, dancer, Actress and a fashion designer. In 1991,
Lopez appeared as a ‘fly girl’ dancer on in ‘living color’ where she remained a
regular until she decides to pursue an acting career in 1993. Also her first
leading role in the 1997 Selena biopic of the same name, Lopez received a
golden globe nomination and became the first Latin actress to earn over US$1 million
for a film. And she went on to star in the adventure horror Anaconda in 1997
and crime comedy out of sight in 1998, later establishing herself as the
highest-paid Latin actress in the Hollywood.  

 Moreover Jennifer Lopez is a leader
by personality. Because she has shown her versatility to the world as a dancer,
singer and actor. She is still considered by many as the most stunning woman in
the entertainment industry. As well as she is one of the richest celebrity.
Also With the dream of becoming a “famous movie star”, she left her
hometown for New York and started her journey as a dancer. Soon her beauty and
talent was discovered and also, began her film career. Later on, when she
gained fair amount of success as an actor, she diverted her attention towards
singing. In America In less time, her songs became a rage and were charting at
no.1. Her sensational dances in the music videos rapidly enhanced the sales and
got her a celebrity status.

In addition to this, Jennifer Lopez always seemed
a bit like a frivolous, and yet still she is totally an awesome, person on the
spectrum of female pop music. While she’s a strong female icon, a women of
color who has worked hard on her own volition to make a name for herself, and
who, by doing so, has inspired women with her tenacity. Also Jennifer Lopez
hasn’t, until now, made a particularly profound statement about feminism with
her art. And her music is better known for her preoccupation with love’s
relationship to money and continually reminding us that she’s still jenny from
the block. Also while she’s been pivotal in birding that gap between R
AND POP. She never really used the music medium to say anything that decisive
on the male Gaza, and the women’s bodies are treated within the industry.

To conclude, this planet needs more role models
like Jennifer Lopez. She is a great leader. Also she is the definition of
self-confidence and strength. She is an awesome person. Whether people follow
Jennifer Lopez for career tips or fashion advice, she is a role model. 




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