Contents Section A.. 2 A1. Groups. 2 I. 2 ii.
Characteristic of group. 3 iii. Functions of formal group. 4 iv. Stages of group. 5 A2. Learning. 6 ii.
Case. 7 iv. Theories of learning. 8 A3. Attitudes. 9 i. 9 ii.
Case. 10 iii. Characteristic of good leadership. 11 iv. Nature vs nurture. 12 v. theories of motivation. 13 A4.
Leadership. 15 References. 16 organizational behaviour Assignment Section A A1. Groups I.
definition A group consists of two or moreperson who interacts with each other consciously for the achievement of certaincommon objections. For example a group of drama students puts on a play or agroup of physical students working on a group research project and also if agroup of music students puts on a concert share the same common objective. ii. Characteristic of group Infrequent interaction.According to the case study the joint venture is multinational.
As the jointventure is formed between people from Japan, the United States and SouthAmerica. It’s hard for them to interact with the other personnel frequently.Therefore to interact with each other they have to schedule their meeting a lotsooner. Weak emotional ties between persons. As the joint venture includespeople from different countries and companies the people would not know eachother’s personal background as they have no close connection with each other.Goal or Activity orientation. The joint venture company sellscoffins.
Their objective is to gain more sales which is high demand. So theygather in a meeting to discuss about their products and how to increase demandfor it. All of their decision is made to achieve their objectives.Impersonal or formal. According to the Case study it is very clearthat the group is a formal. As it consists high level employees from the threecompanies.
So personal feelings are not involved in this venture. iii. Functions of formal group A formal group is created within an organization to complete aspecific role or task. There are two basic functions of a formal group; it isorganizational functions and individual functions. In organizational functionsit accomplish complex tasks beyond capabilities of individuals also it generatecreative or new idea and solutions. In organizational function the coordinateinterdepartmental efforts and provide a problem-solving mechanism for complexproblems requiring assessment and varied information. Moreover it implementscomplex decisions as well as socializes and train newcomers.Moreover in individual functions it satisfies the individual’sneeds for affiliation.
also in this functions it give individual’s anopportunity to test and share their perception of social reality.as well as itreduce the individual’s feelings of insecurity and powerlessness and anxieties.Also individual function provide a problem-solving mechanism for personal andinterpersonal problems. . iv. Stages of group Adjourning Group development means the stages that work groups go through asthey evolve and grow.
The group development has a standard sequence of fivegroups. These stages are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Norming Performing Returnto Storming Independence Forming Interdependence Independence In forming stage the group defines the expectations from members,the environment in which it operates and the reasons for its existence. Alsothe members gets introduced to each other.
as well as in storming the membersjoggle for influence and positions. Sometimes there may be arguments and crossargument for finalizing a group structure. Also in norming the group memberrecognize the need for mutuality and interdependence.
And also they negotiatetheir difference and arrive at workplace approaches, like upholding theinterest of the group. Moreover in performing stage after reaching a consensuson group norm, members start working together to achieve the intended goals. Thelast stage that performing in group development is adjourning for permanentwork groups.
In this stage the group prepares for its disbandment. A2. Learning Learning is a process through whichones capacity or a disposition is changed as a result of experience. Alsolearning can be defined as any relatively permanent change in behavior thatoccurs as a result of practice and experience. For example, in small children,non-conscious learning processes are as natural as breathing. ii.
Case Due to the diverse nature ofthe group the decisions are made on majority percentage. Even though the groupcontains professionals, majority does not always tend to be right. Secondlycommunication is much tougher as each would have their own opinions and ideaswhich other might now agree with. The joint venture includes companies fromdifferent geographical locations where the consumer demands are different. Sodecisions could come with a positive and a negative feedback. However being diverse also means having morepotential. Complex decisions are easy to crack for a diverse group as they havemore knowledge.
In addition diverse teams tend to be more creative. Whichaccording to the case study shows that during their meeting to make thedecision members gave opinions from their area of expertise and as an outcomeit generates new ideas for the venture. Perceiving · input · learner perceives or develops and idea of what has to be done iii. Learning process Feedback · external or internal · coach important here Deciding · processing in the brain · how do we put the info into a response Acting · output · move or movement learning takes Patience and times. and alwaysinvolves some kind of experience. these experience can be derived from insidethe body or they can be sensory, arising outside.
procedural learning orknowing how concerns your ability to carry out particular skilled actions suchas riding a horse. declarative learning concerns your store of factual knowledge such as an understanding of thehistory of our use of the horse.morover the behavioural changes that take placedue to learning are relatively permanent. behaviour can be changed temporarilyby many other kind of factors also in ways which we would not like to calllearning.
these other factors include growing up or maturation like inchildren, aging, alcohole, drugs, and fatigue. as well as learning cannot be observed directly.we can only observe a person’s behaviour also draw the inference from this thatlearning has taken place. so a distinction has to be made between performanceand learning.
performance is evaluated by some quantitative and somequalitative measures of output. iv Theories of learning The theories of learning means a conceptual framework describinghow knowledge is absorbed, also processed and retained during learning. Alsoenvironmental influence and cognitive, emotional, as well as prior experience,all play a part in how understanding or a word view, is required or changedalso knowledge and skills retained. There are 4 main theories of learning.There are classical conducting theory, operant conditioning theory, sociallearning theory, and shaping behavior theory. The classical conditioning is a type of conditioning in which anindividual responds to some other stimulus that would not ordinarily producesuch as response.
As well as their behavior cannot be elicited in response to aspecific, identifiable event but it is generally emitted. In an organizationalsetting we can see classical conducting operating. For example, at onemanufacturing plant, every time the top executive from the head office wouldmake a visit, and the plant management will clean up the administrative officesand wash the windows. Moreover the operant conditioning is a type which desired behaviorleads to a reward or prevents a punishment. Also operant conditioning arguesthat the behavior is a function of its consequences. The behavior is likely tobe repeated if the consequences are favorable. But if the consequence areunfavorable it is not likely to be repeated.
But if the consequence areunfavorable it is not likely to be repeated. For example, an employee isgetting criticized in front of the whole office by his boss and having certainfreedoms taken away as a consequence to her bad behavior at work will motivateher to stay in line and be more sincere. In social learning theory is a type which individuals can learn byobserving what will happens to other people also just by being told aboutsomething, as well as, by direct experience. Much of what we have learned comesobserving and imitating models-parents, supervisors, teachers and film stars.
And also this theory assumes that learning is just not a case of environmentaldeterminism or of individual determinism. Rather it can be a blending of both.For example, television commercials suggest that drinking a certain beverage orusing a particular hair oil will make us popular and win the admiration ofattractive people. In depending upon the component processes involved like asattention or motivation, we may model the behavior shown in the commercial andmay buy the products being advertised. The last theory of learning process is shaping behavior theory. Inthis theory the learning process of individual takes place on the job also asprior to the job. In any organization manager will be concerned with how theycan teach the employees to behave in the ways that will be most beneficial tothe organization.
For example, if an employee who regularly leaves the officehalf hour early starts leaving the office only twenty five minutes early, themanager can reinforce his behavior so that it comes more close to desiredbehavior to leave the office in time. A3. Attitudes i. definition Attitudes are evaluative judgments or statement concerning objects,events, or people. Attitudes are made up of three main components. First theaffective component is the most critical part of the attitude as it is cellsupon the feelings or emotions. Then the cognitive component is made up ofbelief in the way things are. Last component is behavioral.
This describes theintention to behave in certain way towards something or someone. ii. Case As José was the chair of thetask force is more close to the product than any other member of the venture.This means he knows more about the product than anyone else. If I were in theposition of José I would not all incorporating current design for the product.As the joint venture was established for a specific reason which isrevolutionize the existing product. And tell the members that the presidentswould be satisfied with incorporating the current design and to discuss furtherabout revolutionizing the existing product.
iii. Characteristic of good leadership Good leadership demandsbehavioral characteristic and emotional strengths which can draw deeply on aleader’s mental and spiritual reserves. There are many characteristic of a goodleadership. In this it includes recognizes the value in other people socontinually invest in others. Like a good leaders see a large part of theirroles as developing peoples and new leaders.
In an organization the leadershipdevelopment take place and leaders begin to share their experience bothnegative and positive, with others. Secondly shares information. There will be a tendency of someleaders to hold information. Because information is power. A good leader willuses this to the teams benefits knowing the more information the team hascollectively the stronger the team. Moreover in a good leadership the leadersare not afraid for others to succeed. A good leaders will realize that somefollower will outgrow the leader’s ability to develop them any further.
Howevergood leaders aren’t threatened by another’s success. They will be willing tocelebrate as those around them succeed. Thirdly they serve others expecting nothing in return. A goodleaders will have a heart of service. They truly love and value people and theywill want to help others for the good of the one being helped.
iv. Nature vs nurture Thenature versus nurture debates one of the oldest philosophical issues withinpsychology. The nature refers to all of the genes and also hereditary factorthat influence who we are from our personality characteristic to our physicalappearance. As well as the nurture refers to all the environmental variablesthat impact who we are, including our early childhood experience, and oursocial relationship, how we were raise, also our surrounding culture. v. theories of motivation .Motivation can be defined as an urgein an individual to perform goal directed behavior. Therefore, motivation maynot be inflicted from outside but it is an intrinsic desire in a man to achievethe targeted goal through activity or performance.
There are three main theories of motivation. they are Maslow’stheory, Herzberg’s two factors or motivation Hygiene theory and McGregor’stheory X and theory Y. first in Maslow theory the Abraham Maslow is consideredfather of humanistic movement that he observed the lives of creative and healthpeople to develop is theory. This is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model. Self-actualizationSelf-esteem needsLove and belongingness needsSafety and security needs Physiologicalneeds The physiological needs required preserving human life. These needsincludes food, shelter nad clothing. Also these needs must be at least partlybefore higher level needs emerge. Once these physiological needs are satisfiedthe safety and security needs emerge and become dominant.
These needs imply foreconomic independence and for self-preservation. After these needs aresatisfied then a sense of belonging and acceptance become predominant inmotivating behavior. These needs are for friendship, love and exchange offeelings. Then the self-esteem needs are concerned with awareness ofself-importance and recognition from others. This need consists of such thingas self-respect, power, achievement, and self-confidence. The lastself-actualization needs involve self-fulfillment or achieving what oneconsiders to become everything, what that one considered to be his mission inlife.
The second theory is Herzberg’s two factors or motivation Hygienetheory. Herzberg proposed the motivation and hygiene theory, this is also knownas the two factor theory (1959) of job satisfaction. According to his theory,people are influenced by two set of factors.
They are motivator factor andhygiene factors. The Hygiene factors are related to the work environment.According to the Herzberg the following factors are included in this category. · Pay and benefit · Company policy and administrative· Supervision · Status · Relationship with co-workers.
These factors do not produce anygrowth in the employee’s output; they only prevent losses in the employee’sperformance due to work restrictions. For these reason, this factors are called’maintenance factors’ because it is necessary to maintenance reasonable levelof satisfaction in employees. The second factor in Herzberg ismotivating factor. These factors have a positive power to satisfy and producehigh performance.
This included six factors that motivate the employees towork. · Achievement · Recognition· Work itself · Responsibility· Promotion Most of the factors are related tojob contents. And an increase in these factors will satisfy the workers. The third factor is McGregor’stheory X and theory Y. He has presented two opposite views of human behavior inthe organization.
Also it is the form of what his cells theory ‘X’ and theory’Y’. The theory ‘X’ represents the traditional view of the human and utilizinginner motivation. The theory ‘Y’ represents a dynamic and modern nature ofhuman beings.To conclude motivation theories isan important role for manager to achieve their objectives and to increase theeffectiveness of the employees.
A4. Leadership Leading a group or a team isa real skill that takes time, thought and dedication. Leadership is the moststudied aspect of organization and business because it is the one overarchingtopic that makes the difference between failure and success. At times it mayseem overwhelmingly complex, but by focusing on some fundamentals you will findthat you can lead your team with skill and confidence. Jennifer Lynn Lopez born in July 24, 1969.
Her nickname is J.Lo,and she is an American singer, dancer, Actress and a fashion designer. In 1991,Lopez appeared as a ‘fly girl’ dancer on in ‘living color’ where she remained aregular until she decides to pursue an acting career in 1993. Also her firstleading role in the 1997 Selena biopic of the same name, Lopez received agolden globe nomination and became the first Latin actress to earn over US$1 millionfor a film. And she went on to star in the adventure horror Anaconda in 1997and crime comedy out of sight in 1998, later establishing herself as thehighest-paid Latin actress in the Hollywood. Moreover Jennifer Lopez is a leaderby personality.
Because she has shown her versatility to the world as a dancer,singer and actor. She is still considered by many as the most stunning woman inthe entertainment industry. As well as she is one of the richest celebrity.Also With the dream of becoming a “famous movie star”, she left herhometown for New York and started her journey as a dancer.
Soon her beauty andtalent was discovered and also, began her film career. Later on, when shegained fair amount of success as an actor, she diverted her attention towardssinging. In America In less time, her songs became a rage and were charting atno.1. Her sensational dances in the music videos rapidly enhanced the sales andgot her a celebrity status.
In addition to this, Jennifer Lopez always seemeda bit like a frivolous, and yet still she is totally an awesome, person on thespectrum of female pop music. While she’s a strong female icon, a women ofcolor who has worked hard on her own volition to make a name for herself, andwho, by doing so, has inspired women with her tenacity. Also Jennifer Lopezhasn’t, until now, made a particularly profound statement about feminism withher art. And her music is better known for her preoccupation with love’srelationship to money and continually reminding us that she’s still jenny fromthe block. Also while she’s been pivotal in birding that gap between RAND POP. She never really used the music medium to say anything that decisiveon the male Gaza, and the women’s bodies are treated within the industry. To conclude, this planet needs more role modelslike Jennifer Lopez. She is a great leader.
Also she is the definition ofself-confidence and strength. She is an awesome person. Whether people followJennifer Lopez for career tips or fashion advice, she is a role model.
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