CONTENT could be break if the lens touch


 

 

CONTENT

 

1.    
OBJECTIVES

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2.    
INTRODUCTION

3.    
MATERIALS

4.    
METHODS

5.    
RESULTS

6.    
DISCUSSION

7.    
APPENDICES

8.    
REFERENCES

 

 

 

Date:
– 25.01.2018

Experiment
No: – 01 part 01

Experiment
Title: – Microscope Morphology of microorganisms

 

OBJECTIVES

 

·        
To identify and study the parts of compound
light microscope

·        
To study the techniques of using compound
light microscope

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Microscope
can define as ” An optical instrument having a magnifying lens or a combination of
lenses for inspecting objects too small to be seen or too small to be seen distinctly
and detail by the unaided eye ”

 

·        
First time microscope is invented by Zacharias Janssen in 1590’s.

 

 

 

 

 

(Zacharias Janssen)
this image download from (http://www.history-of-the-microscope.org/history-of-the-microscope-who-invented-the-microscope.php)

                                                                                          

Types of Microscope

·        
Light or Optical microscope

§  Bright-field
microscope

·        
Simple microscope

·        
Compound microscope ( Which used in lab )

§  Dark-field
microscope

§  Fluorescence
microscope

§  Phase-contrast
microscope

·        
Electron microscope

§  Scanning
electron microscope ( SEM )

§  Transmission
electron microscope ( TEM )

§  Scanning
and transmission electron microscope ( STEM )

Compound
microscope

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Light
microscope

(https://www.bhphotovideo.com/images/images2500x2500/celestron_labs_44131_cb2000cf_compound_binocular_microscope_1103306.jpg)

 

Parts of light microscope (binocular)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(http://www.microscopemaster.com/images/cm501microscopediagram.jpg)

Eyepiece
or ocular lens: – Using this part can looks through to see
the specimen.  Eyepiece usually contains a 10X or 15X power
lens.

Objective
lenses: – One of the most important part of a light microscope,
those lenses are very close to the specimen. Standard microscope contains
three, four or five objective lenses between 4X – 100X of power range. Have to
be careful while focusing the microscope otherwise it could be break if the
lens touch the slide. Must clean the lenses before and after using it.

 

 

Stage holder clamp: – clips
that hold the slide which is made by metal

Mechanical stage: – Flat
interface where the slide is placed

Illuminator: – Which is
calls by light source of the light microscope

Base: – It helps to place
microscope to place on table or somewhere. And illuminator also located in
there.

Diopter: – Is using to change focus on
eyepiece. Binocular optical microscope has 2 diopters separately.

Head: – Is connects the eyepiece to the
objective lenses.

Arm (frame): – Is connects head to the microscope

Coarse adjustment: – it helps to bring specimen in to general
focus

Fine adjustment: – After coarse adjustment takes specimen
into general focus, can increases the details, focus and clear by using fine adjustment.

Nosepiece: – Objective lenses connects to the
nosepiece which can rotate. By rotating can change the objective lenses.

Specimen
or slide: – Is the object being checked. Most of the
time specimens are placed on slides. First object placed on glass slide after
that it covered by using cover slip.

Stage
control: – it moves the stage left and right or up and
down

Aperture:
– is
the hole in the middle of the stage which brings illuminator light to the
specimen.

On/off
switch: – This switch located on base of the microscope and it
turns the illuminator off and on.

 

 

 

 

The light path of specimen
to the eye

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/courses-images/wp-content/uploads/sites/1094/2016/11/03153611/OSC_Microbio_02_03_Darkfield.jpg)

 

 

 

 

 

Microscope
permanent slide preparation

 

There
are two types of basic slides

 

·        
Wet mount ( requires water )

 

·        
Dry mount

 

·        
First use toothpick or forceps to gather
the dry subject material.

·        
Then place the material on the slide.

·        
After that carefully lower a cover slip on
the slide.

·        
Avoid any air bubbles and wipe eess stain
on the slide.

·        
Finally To examine it observe under the
microscope

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Materials
and methods

 

Materials

·        
Light Microscope

·        
Microscope prepared slides

·        
Permanent letter “E” slide

 

Methods

·        
Microscope was placed in the flat surface (
Bench or Table )

·        
Light source was switched on

·        
Then pre prepared letter “E” slide was
placed in the stage

·        
Illuminator was switched on

·        
The low power (4X) objective lens was
placed

·        
By looking side stage was raised up to the
top by using coerce adjustment

·        
By using eyepiece specimen was focused high
as possible

·        
Image was recorded

·        
By looking side, nose piece was changed
into mid power lens (10X)

·        
By using eyepiece specimen was focused high
as possible

·        
Image was recorded

·        
By looking side, nose piece was changed
into high power lens (40X)

·        
By using eyepiece specimen was focused high
as possible

·        
Image was recorded

·        
After that stage was bought down by using
coarse adjustment wheel and low power lens was placed and slide was removed

·        
Then using above steps permanent Ameba, paramecium slide was placed and
recorded the image

 

 

RESULTS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DISCUSSION

 

 

This experiment was used to identify
microorganisms which aren’t see in naked eye. Before observing permanent slides
( pre prepared slides ) microscope was focused by using pre prepared letter “E”
slide. After investigating of letter “e” slide  protozoa (Protozoa is a eukaryotic microbe.). pre
prepared slides was observed under the microscope. Amaeba proteus . It can be clearly seen few organelles under mid
power lens. The image was recorded. When image was drawn the drawing should be freehand
and pencil must be sharp and no double lines. After that other slide was
observed under the microscope and above steps are repeated.

 

Compound light microscope
can be cleaned in two was

·        
Normal method

If objective lenses are dirty, can clean by
using this method.

use lens cleaning papers ( whatman X150)

§  First
dipping the cleaning papers in dupanol solution

§  Then
gently wipe on the objective lenses and eyepiece lens

( Don’t apply it on plastic particles it
can be damage)

 

·        
Technician method

Lab technician removes all the parts of the
compound light microscope and cleans them separately

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDICES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

w.m of Amaeba proteus (10x40x2)x                            

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

w.m of protozoa paramecium (10x40x2)

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

 

·        
https://www.biologycorner.com/worksheets/microscope_use.html

·        
https://www.microscopeworld.com/t-microscope_clean.aspx

·        
Case, S.L., Funke, B.R. and Tortora,
G.J. (2016) Microbiology an Introduction.
12th Global edn. United States of America: PEARSON

·        
http://www.microscopemaster.com/images/cm501microscopediagram.jpg)

x

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