CONTENT 1. OBJECTIVES2.
INTRODUCTION3. MATERIALS 4. METHODS5. RESULTS6. DISCUSSION7. APPENDICES8.
REFERENCES Date:- 25.01.2018ExperimentNo: – 01 part 01ExperimentTitle: – Microscope Morphology of microorganisms OBJECTIVES · To identify and study the parts of compoundlight microscope · To study the techniques of using compoundlight microscope INTRODUCTION Microscopecan define as ” An optical instrument having a magnifying lens or a combination oflenses for inspecting objects too small to be seen or too small to be seen distinctlyand detail by the unaided eye ” · First time microscope is invented by Zacharias Janssen in 1590’s. (Zacharias Janssen)this image download from (http://www.history-of-the-microscope.
org/history-of-the-microscope-who-invented-the-microscope.php) Types of Microscope · Light or Optical microscope § Bright-fieldmicroscope · Simple microscope· Compound microscope ( Which used in lab )§ Dark-fieldmicroscope § Fluorescencemicroscope§ Phase-contrastmicroscope· Electron microscope § Scanningelectron microscope ( SEM )§ Transmissionelectron microscope ( TEM )§ Scanningand transmission electron microscope ( STEM ) Compoundmicroscope Lightmicroscope(https://www.bhphotovideo.
com/images/images2500x2500/celestron_labs_44131_cb2000cf_compound_binocular_microscope_1103306.jpg) Parts of light microscope (binocular) (http://www.microscopemaster.com/images/cm501microscopediagram.jpg)Eyepieceor ocular lens: – Using this part can looks through to seethe specimen.
Eyepiece usually contains a 10X or 15X powerlens.Objectivelenses: – One of the most important part of a light microscope,those lenses are very close to the specimen. Standard microscope containsthree, four or five objective lenses between 4X – 100X of power range. Have tobe careful while focusing the microscope otherwise it could be break if thelens touch the slide. Must clean the lenses before and after using it. Stage holder clamp: – clipsthat hold the slide which is made by metal Mechanical stage: – Flatinterface where the slide is placed Illuminator: – Which iscalls by light source of the light microscope Base: – It helps to placemicroscope to place on table or somewhere. And illuminator also located inthere. Diopter: – Is using to change focus oneyepiece.
Binocular optical microscope has 2 diopters separately. Head: – Is connects the eyepiece to theobjective lenses.Arm (frame): – Is connects head to the microscope Coarse adjustment: – it helps to bring specimen in to generalfocus Fine adjustment: – After coarse adjustment takes specimeninto general focus, can increases the details, focus and clear by using fine adjustment.Nosepiece: – Objective lenses connects to thenosepiece which can rotate. By rotating can change the objective lenses.
Specimenor slide: – Is the object being checked. Most of thetime specimens are placed on slides. First object placed on glass slide afterthat it covered by using cover slip.Stagecontrol: – it moves the stage left and right or up anddown Aperture:- isthe hole in the middle of the stage which brings illuminator light to thespecimen.On/offswitch: – This switch located on base of the microscope and itturns the illuminator off and on.
The light path of specimento the eye (https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/courses-images/wp-content/uploads/sites/1094/2016/11/03153611/OSC_Microbio_02_03_Darkfield.jpg) Microscopepermanent slide preparation Thereare two types of basic slides · Wet mount ( requires water ) · Dry mount · First use toothpick or forceps to gatherthe dry subject material. · Then place the material on the slide. · After that carefully lower a cover slip onthe slide.
· Avoid any air bubbles and wipe eess stainon the slide. · Finally To examine it observe under themicroscope Materialsand methods Materials · Light Microscope · Microscope prepared slides · Permanent letter “E” slide Methods · Microscope was placed in the flat surface (Bench or Table )· Light source was switched on· Then pre prepared letter “E” slide wasplaced in the stage · Illuminator was switched on · The low power (4X) objective lens wasplaced· By looking side stage was raised up to thetop by using coerce adjustment · By using eyepiece specimen was focused highas possible · Image was recorded · By looking side, nose piece was changedinto mid power lens (10X)· By using eyepiece specimen was focused highas possible· Image was recorded· By looking side, nose piece was changedinto high power lens (40X)· By using eyepiece specimen was focused highas possible· Image was recorded· After that stage was bought down by usingcoarse adjustment wheel and low power lens was placed and slide was removed · Then using above steps permanent Ameba, paramecium slide was placed andrecorded the image RESULTS DISCUSSION This experiment was used to identifymicroorganisms which aren’t see in naked eye. Before observing permanent slides( pre prepared slides ) microscope was focused by using pre prepared letter “E”slide. After investigating of letter “e” slide protozoa (Protozoa is a eukaryotic microbe.). preprepared slides was observed under the microscope. Amaeba proteus . It can be clearly seen few organelles under midpower lens.
The image was recorded. When image was drawn the drawing should be freehandand pencil must be sharp and no double lines. After that other slide wasobserved under the microscope and above steps are repeated.
Compound light microscopecan be cleaned in two was· Normal method If objective lenses are dirty, can clean byusing this method. use lens cleaning papers ( whatman X150) § Firstdipping the cleaning papers in dupanol solution§ Thengently wipe on the objective lenses and eyepiece lens( Don’t apply it on plastic particles itcan be damage) · Technician method Lab technician removes all the parts of thecompound light microscope and cleans them separately APPENDICES w.m of Amaeba proteus (10x40x2)x w.m of protozoa paramecium (10x40x2) REFERENCES · https://www.biologycorner.com/worksheets/microscope_use.
html· https://www.microscopeworld.com/t-microscope_clean.aspx· Case, S.L., Funke, B.
R. and Tortora,G.J. (2016) Microbiology an Introduction.12th Global edn.
United States of America: PEARSON· http://www.microscopemaster.com/images/cm501microscopediagram.jpg)