Code-switchingand mixing of English and Arabic among college students in Saudi Arabia.A case study of the faculty ofscience and arts at Muthnab (QU) Assistant professor: MajedMohamed Hasan Drbseh and Associated professor: AriffAbstract- The purpose of this research study is toposit some points touching the use of Code-switching and mixing of English and Arabic.The goals of this study are to show 1- whether Arab students at Qassimuniversity (QU) code-switch and mix to English in their daily contacts or not,2- why Arab students at ‘QU’ code switch and mix to English. This type of investigationwas conducted on the 20 of December, 2017. It examined80 Arab students of different educational levels, and ages, they are at 4levels of education at ‘QU’: First year that are taken intensive Englishcourse, second, third and fourth level.
The tool used for data collection inthis study was a questionnaire. The result has shown that most of the Arabprofessors and students at ‘QU’ do code-switch and mix to English in theirconversations. Finally, the findings show that the reasons that Arab studentsat ‘QU’ code-switch and mix to English refer to the lack of knowledge in EnglishIndex Terms- Code-switching (CS), Code-mixing (CM), Qassim university (QU). INTRODUCTIONThe communication between usersof different speech varieties seem in languages contact .According to Hammerand Blanc (2000), languages in contact describe a situation where to or morecodes are used in interactions between people.
Bilingualism is thepsychological state of an individual who has access to more than one linguisticcode as a means of social communication; the degree of access will vary along anumber of dimensions which are psychological, cognitive, sociolinguistic,social psychological, social, sociological, sociolinguistic, sociocultural andlinguistic (Hammers, 1981 cited in Hammers and Blanc, 2000: 6). The study oflanguage in contact concentrates more on various types of language contactsituations and various forms of bilingualism. However, the major issue inbilingualism research is code-switching and mixing, the alternative use of twoor more languages in the same conversation by bilingual speakers (Lesley andMuysken, 1995). The study of language contact as phenomena like bilingualismand CS/CM has increased last few years. According to (Jonsson, 2005) work’language contact phenomena’ was established to show different types oflanguage contact phenomena such as code-switching, code-mixing, and borrowings.This concept also covers phenomena that are not counted as code-switching, forexample, loans and interference.
CS and CM can be considered as a normal resultof the bilingualism which is the interaction in two or more languages. Haugen(1956 cite in Romaine, 1995: 52) differentiate between: “switching, thealternate use of two languages; interference, the overlapping of two languages,or application of two systems to the same item; and integration, the use ofwords or phrases from one language that have become so much a part of the otherthat it cannot be called either switching or overlapping.” In 2006 Chungindicates that meeting the complex communicative demands requires the speakersof a community where two or more languages are used to switch from one languageto another. According to Haugen (1956), bilingual tends to use or formsentences that have elements from both languages especially at the beginning ofthe language development.
It is normal for a speaker who speaks two or morelanguages fluently to switch or mix between them on justness or frequentlywhile speaking to other people who speak the same languages. It also seems thatif a speaker spends a lot of time in a bilingual or multilingual environment,he/she will start to switch from one language to another. The aim of thisresearch paper is to discuss the phenomenon of Code-switching and mixing ofEnglish and Arabic amongst Arab students at( QU)in Saudi Arabia Likely, higherlearning institutions in Saudi Arabia have decreed the language of contentsubject class rooms to English, which is the more significant of the second and foreign language in this country . The motivation is behind the movingtowards using English as a foreign and second language in teaching that most ofthe people cross the Kingdom particular the young hoping and wishing to getbetter jobs. Whereas, that other people need to learn English for differentreasons such as, business, education, travel, etc. This thing improve and encourage the studentswho are attending and learning at Qassim University in Saudi ArabiaCode-switching and mixing can be considered as a natural product of bilinguals’interaction in two or more languages . This sort of investigation tries tocalibrate whether Arab students at ‘QU’ code switch/mix to English and thereasons they code switch/mix to English in daily communication.
II. STATEMENTOF PROBLEM Bilinguals are known for their ability to code-switch and mixbetween the languages they speak through their conversations. The phenomenon ofcode-switching and mixing are seemed in the conversations among Arab bilingualspeakers of English where they use a lot of English expressions and loanwords. Manystudies have been conducted on code-switching and mixing .On the other hand,few studies have been done on Arabic bilingual speakers of English.
Whereas,there is a lack of information about the way of Arabic speakers of English codesswitching and mix between the two languages in daily dialogues orconversations. Previous studies on code –switching and mixing concentrated onthe reasons why Arab bilingual code switch and mix to English. Previous studiesdid not focus on the types of code-switching and mixing used by Arab bilingual.In other words, fewer studies have been conducted at the university setting toexamine the phenomenon of codes witching and mixing among Arab bilingual. Thus,study will investigate code-switching and mixing in a university setting, forexample, Qassim University-Almuthneb. The study will concentrate on the reasonswhy Arab students at Qassim University code-switching and mixing to English intheir daily dialogue. It will also inquire the types of code-switching andmixing used by Arab University students at ‘QU’.
III. The aims of this researchpaper: • To assure whether Arab students at Qassim University code- switch andmixing to English or not. • To assure the reasons Arab University students atQassim University code-switching and mixing in their daily dialogues orconversations. IV. RESEARCH QUESTIONS • Do Arab students at Qassim University (Almuthneb)code-switch and mix to English? • What are the reasons Arab students at QassimUniversity code-switch and mix to English in their daily dialogues?Significance of the research paper •the results of the research paper will beparticularly important for their possibility in creating a better understandingof the code switching and mixing phenomenon amongst Arab bilingual. •Theresearcher, moreover, believes this study will make a simple assistance infilling the gap of the lack of studies in the domain of the bilingualism,especially in code-switching and mixing of Arabic bilingual of English. • Theresults will contribute to both L1 and ELS/EFL teachers’ understanding oflanguage use and communication among Arab University students.
• Last one, itis expected that the results of this study will help in second languageacquisition investigation or research on the use of the second language. Thismeans the study will share in the SLA literature on the problem ofcode-switching and mixing. V. DEFINITION OF CONCEPTS Code-switching occurs whena speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, inthe context of a single conversation. According to Grosjean (1982) code-switchingis the alternate use of two or more languages in the same utterance, and thiscan be in a form of a single word, or a phrase, or a sentence/s.
In 1998,Spolsky verifies code-switching as the phenomenon which occurs when bilingualswitch between two common languages they share in the middle of a conversation,and the switch takes place between or within sentences, involving phrases,words, or even parts of words. Code-switching, in this investigation, isdefined as the phenomenon where bilingual change words, phrases, and sentencesof one language by another languages. Code-mixing Code -mixing is assign to themixing of two or more languages or language varieties in speech. The termscode-mixing are used to describe more stable situations in which many languagesare used without any pragmatic effects. According to Alvarez (1998) the formal codemixing should be treated as distinct from code-switching, defined in pragmaticor discourse terms. Bilingualism refers to “the state of a linguisticcommunity in which two languages are in contact with the result that two codescan be used in the same interaction and that a number of individuals arebilinguals” (Hammers and Blanc, 2000: 6).
In (1994) Mohanty says that bilingualismthrough defining the bilingual person, who is the one with an ability to meetthe communicative demands of him/her and of the society by interacting with theother speakers in normal circumstances in two or more languages. The previousstudy on bilingualism said that proficient bilingual speakers employcode-switching and mixing in their speeches for different purposes and atdifferent levels. Bloomfield (1933) explains bilingualism as having the controlof two languages equivalent to the native. Indicating to Haugen (1953) andSuleiman (1981): Bilingualism usually occurs within some particular socialsetting. Bilingualism amongst Arabs There is a large number of Arabs who liveoutside Arab countries. Those Arab people are at most bilingual, but theirlanguage choice varies from the first generation and the second generation whowere born outside Arab countries and did not acquire the Arabic basics. AmongArab Immigrants in India CS/CM were observed as phenomena in the informant’sspeech in settings such as home, friendship, and university.
The study foundthat CS/CM is used among the informants as a strategy in communication. But themotivations for switching and mixing in the informant’s speech are limited forsome people in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The bilingualism phenomena inJordan is appeared by the use of hundreds of English loanwords and expressions(Hazaymeh, 2004; Kailani, 1994).
Since many Jordanians are bilingual inEnglish, they prefer to code switch and mix towards English in fields as work,education and general conversation. Hazaymeh also told that recent culturalcontacts with the English-speaking countries have introduced many aspects ofEnglish culture and English loanwords into Arabic in the Jordanian society.Cultural contacts have been established by various means such as education,technology, trade, sports, media, and communications. Consequently, manyJordanians have been encouraged to learn English and become bilingual. Hazaymehalso indicates that Jordanians of different social backgrounds and ages like tocode switch to English, using English words and expressions in their dailyinteractions because of many reasons, for example as a sign of knowing Englishand as a symbol of social prestige. VII.
FOCUS ON THE REASONS FORCODE-SWITCHING AND MIXING For several years, code-switching and mixingresearchers have trying to find a reason for code-switching and mixing. Researchersuch as Gumperz (1982) and Auer (1984) have explained code-switching as one ofa number of discourse cues (both verbal and nonverbal) that help signal andinterpret interlocutor’s intentions. While the interest of other researchers,was to describe the morpho-syntactical constraints in inter-sententialswitching focusing on the position or location in a sentence where codeswitching and mixing would be allowed.
VIII. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND SAMPLING theresearch method has used in this study was quantitative. The method haveemployed in this research paper to collect data from some learners, Arab Universitystudents at ‘QU’ Almuthneb in Saudi Arabia. The sample included Arab studentsfrom different ages, and level of education. This held with Arab students at”QU”.
The participants are students who enrolled at different level ofeducation, for instance first year, second, third and fourth year at “QU”.SAMPLES One eighty Arab students have participated and, were chosen throughrandom sampling, using a list of all Arab students names gained from theundergraduate Programme Departments at (QU). The sample included Arab studentsof different ages 18, 24, 28 and 32 who are enrolled at 4 levels of education,first year, second, third and fourth year at Qassim University (QU). Thestudents were Arab bilingual of English; they speak Arabic as their mothertongue, including many varieties, and English as a second language. They areenrolled in different programmes at ‘QU’. A total of eighty questionnaires weredistributed of which 76 were returned; the return rate was more than 90%.
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