CHAPTER even if he or she is not



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of the Study

violence is slowly becoming a real issue that most of the families are facing.
It is also the “leading cause of injury to women between the ages of 15 and 44
in the United States, more than car accidents, muggings, and rapes combined.” (United
States Senate, 102nd Congress, 1992)

the Philippines, domestic violence is also seen as the root cause why most of
the families do not work out anymore. There are many reported crimes regarding
domestic violence and it has been suddenly increasing for the past few years.
From the reported crimes, 4 out of 5 cases state that women are always the
victim of domestic violence. According to Martin Beckford (2009), “Academics
claim men were the aggressor in 92 per cent of abusive incidents recorded by
the police, and are more likely to use physical violence against their
partners.” Females are prone to domestic violence because they are most likely
to suffer from psychological stress compared to men. Global Fund for Women
(2018) states that the rights of women were emphasized for over the past few
years. Women’s rights include their right to live and free from any form of

violence does not only refer to physical abuse but there are also other
different forms of domestic violence. Emotional abuse, economic abuse,
psychological abuse, and behavioral abuse are considered to be the other forms
of domestic violence that most people are doing unintentionally.

violence does not only affect the victim but also their children. Many studies
would state that women or the mothers are usually the victims of domestic
violence. Behind every story of domestic violence, the child will always be
affected by it even if he or she is not part of the domestic violence. In fact,
children have greater tendency to suffer from long term effects than the victim
in the family. The effects of domestic violence on the child’s growth is irreplaceable
and it gives the child a tough time to adjust because it is already natural for
the child. (Howell, Barnes, Miller, & Graham-Bermann, 2016). Due to the
increased rate of reported cases about children suffering because they
witnessed domestic violence, there is already a must to conduct a study
regarding the issue of domestic violence especially in families to avoid from
happening to other families. Children would experience both short and long-term
effects after witnessing domestic violence. These effects include emotional
responses, behavioral responses, physical responses, emotional trauma, and
psychological trauma. Emotional responses of children exposed to domestic
violence involves their feelings or disposition in their lives. (Sudbury, Wayland,
& Lincoln, 2008)

the study conducted regarding the effects on children who witnessed domestic
violence aims to inform the readers of the effects of domestic violence to
children, to give knowledge on the effects of domestic violence to the child’s
psychological behavior, to help the child gain knowledge on the proper ways to
do in order to overcome the psychological stress that they are feeling, to
conduct interviews among individuals who are undergoing the same situation, and
to use the information gathered to show the possible solutions to resolve the
negative effects that were presented through the study. This study aims to
provide readers with the knowledge of the possible outcomes of domestic
violence in a family.

As of the present, there has been no concrete study that would support
giving knowledge to families regarding domestic violence. It is in this context
that the proponent of the study decided to identify the different behaviors of
children witnessing domestic violence. In the hope of this study, implementers
may consider to the findings in this study in strengthening the foundation of
every family.


of the Problem

The purpose of this psychological study
is to understand and identify the effects of domestic violence on the behavior
of the children who have witnessed it for the year 2015 until the present time.
In this research, the effects of domestic violence are concentrated on the
children’s psychological well-being. The effects will used as a basis to
thoroughly address the problem.


In the study, the following questions
will be answered:

are the reasons why married couples experience domestic violence?

are the effects of domestic violence to children who are involved and in the
relationship of the family members?

are the signs that a person is involved or affected by domestic violence?

do children react when they have witnessed domestic violence?

are the ways to overcome the effects of domestic violence on children?



of the Study

This study assesses the effects of
domestic violence in families who have experience this type of aggression and
how it can affect also the community. The result of these study will be of
great benefit to the following:

The children who have witnessed domestic
violence will be provided information of what they are experiencing. It will
enable them to see the bigger picture and how they can overcome these effects.

Parents may consider their actions and be able
to avoid violence towards their partner as it will affect their children. They
are also those who executed this act of violence before so that they may
consider avoiding again domestic violence because of the effects it may affect
their children.

Couples may gain knowledge about domestic
violence and its effects especially if they are heading towards creating a

And lastly, adolescents who are the future
generation of adults may gain knowledge. They will be provided the information
of the effects of domestic violence to their future children to make them
consider and become aware of the present problem of domestic violence.


and Delimitation of the Study

study covered the behavior of the children who witnessed domestic violence in
the Philippines for the period covering 2015 up to the present times.

The study investigated on the behavior of the
children who witnessed domestic violence which includes physical abuse, sexual
abuse, economic abuse, emotional abuse, and psychological abuse. This
includes the different effects that the child might be undergoing such as
emotional responses, physical responses, behavioral responses, emotional
trauma, and psychological trauma. Parents who are involved in domestic violence
are mostly affected also. Meanwhile, Children are the ones who are greatly
affected in this study.

study also included questions in relation to the behavior and impacts of the
children who witnessed domestic violence.


Definition of Terms

Violence. This is the
behavior used by one person in a relationship to control the other. Partners
may be married or not married; heterosexual, gay, or lesbian; living together, separated
or dating. (Creative Communications Group)

Physical Abuse. It is
simply hitting, slapping, shoving, grabbing, pinching, biting, hair pulling,
etc. are types of physical abuse. This type of abuse also includes denying a
partner medical care or forcing alcohol and/or drug use upon him or her.
(Department of Justice)

Sexual Abuse. It is
coercing or attempting to coerce any sexual contact or behavior without
consent. It includes marital rape, attacks on sexual parts of the body, forcing
sex after physical violence has occurred, or treating one in a sexually
demeaning manner. (Department of Justice)

Emotional Abuse. It is
undermining an individual’s sense of self-worth and/or self-esteem is abusive.
Name-calling, diminishing one’s abilities and criticism are some examples of it.
(Department of Justice)

Economic Abuse. It is
defined as attempting to make an individual financially dependent by
maintaining total control over financial resources. (Department of Justice)

Abuse. It includes the fear by intimidation; threatening
physical harm to self, partner, children, or partner’s family or friends.
(Department of Justice)


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