Cancer % (3.8 million) of all deaths (Mishra


Cancer
is a group of diseases caused by unregulated growth and spread of neoplastic
cells (Jarrell, Carabasi and Radomski, 2000). The total burden of cancer across
the world is estimated to be around 22 million and approximately 10 million new
cases of cancer are diagnosed every year across the world. Hence the great majority
of new cases (more than 60%) are from the developing world. Cancers in all forms
are causing about 12% deaths throughout the world. In developing countries
cancer ranks third as a cause of death and accounts for 9.5 % (3.8 million) of
all deaths (Mishra and Meherotra, 2014). Bangladesh is a developing country
with the highest population density worldwide. The current population of
Bangladesh is 153.6 million with the growth rate of 1.37% (Hussain and
Sullivan, 2013). Like many other countries in the world, cancer is one of the
major killer diseases in Bangladesh (Talukder et al. 2009). According to the
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death.
International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death
rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030 (Hussain and Sullivan,
2013). Its personal, social and economic bearing is huge (Talukder et al.
2009). There are 1.3 to 1.5 million cancer patients in Bangladesh, with about 2
million patients newly diagnosed with cancer each year (Hussain and Sullivan,
2013).  

The
five most common cancers in Bangladesh are gynecological (cervix uteri, corpus
uteri and ovary), head and neck (lip and oral cavity, naso-pharynx, other
pharynx, larynx and thyroid), lung, breast and esophagus (Hasan, Uddin,
Rfiquzzaman, Chowdhury and Wahed, 2012). Cancer refers to those many diseases
where abnormal cells divide without control and invade tissues. The different
cancers are named by the site of occurrence (Enderby et al. 2009). Head and
neck cancer includes epithelial malignancies of the upper aero digestive tract
(Ragin, Modugno and Gollin, 2007) including the paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity,
oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx (Cognetti, Weber and Lai, 2008).

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According to Joshi,
Dutta, Chaturvedi and Nair (2014), worldwide 640,000 new people developed head
and neck cancer in every year and 356,000 deaths occurred annually. An average
mortality rate of head and neck cancer is 7.3 in males and 3.2 in females per
100,000 and an average incidence rate of 8.8 in males and 5.1 in females per
100,000 respectively (Ragin, Modugno and Gollin, 2007). Specific cancers have different
rates (Enderby et al. 2009). Worldwide people develop cancer of larynx 24%,
pharynx 22%, nasopharynx 13%3 and oral cavity 41% (Joshi, Dutta, Chaturvedi and
Nair, 2014). Head and neck carcinoma is the most common cause with an incidence
of 500,000 new cases a year in Europe. 

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