Breast it is estimated that 1.7 million women

Breast cancer is
considered the most common causes of cancer death in women. In 2012, it is
estimated that 1.7 million women were diagnosed with cancer in Europe, among
which 464,000 new cases of breast cancer and 131,000 deaths from it (Ferlay et
al., 2013). The reduction in cancer death can be achieved by early detection of
breast lesions through screening programs ( Perry et al., 2008).  Mammography is the most widely used method to
detect breast cancer in asymptomatic women. Generally, there are two approaches
of cancer screening, detection of cancer
in early stages where the aim is to prevents cancer from spreading to other
organs, and prevention of the disease by finding and removing premalignant
biomarkers of cancer ( Loberg et al., 2015). Mammography screening is widely
available in many countries. In the UK, The screening program invites women
aged 50-70 years for mammography every three years. In the US and Canada,
biannually or triennially mammography screening starting from age 50 is
recommended ( Baum, 2014). Recently, there has been a debate over the benefits
and harms of the program and that not only unique in the UK. In 2002, the
International Agency for Research on Cancer at the World health Organisation re-examined the proof of breast screening and put forward recommendations on
more investigation needed and also to apply the screening program (IARC, 2002).
The US Preventive Services Taskforce in
2009 reviewed the efficacy of different modalities of breast cancer screening.
They recommend that women aged 50-70 to be screened biennial rather than once
and those under the age of 50 not to be screened (Woolf, 2010).  The Canadian Taskforce
On Preventive Healthcare concluded that the
reduction in cancer death is small for women aged 40-70 years at average risk
of breast cancer and overdiagnosis is greater than benefit for younger women
(Canadian Taskforce On Preventive
Healthcare, 2011). In these days, the debate focused on how many lives are
saved attributed to screening, the risk
of overdiagnosed women, and the way that the benefits and harms are
communicated to women who undergo screening. Therefore, the principle of this
paper is to the arguments for and against breast cancer screening program.


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