Bacteria the body, including the abdomen glands, bones

Bacteria are
microscopic single celled organisms that thrive
in diverse environments. They can live within soil, in the ocean and inside the
human gut. The three basic bacterial shapes are spherical, bacillus and spiral. (Aryal.S,2015)

Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection that
spreads through inhaling tiny droplets from the coughs or sneezes of an
infected person. (NHS Choices, 2010) It mainly affects the lungs, but it can affect any
part of the body, including the abdomen glands, bones and nervous system. (NHS choices, 2010)When a person becomes
infected with tuberculosis, the bacteria in the lungs multiply and cause
pneumonia along with chest pain, coughing up blood, and a prolonged cough. (NHS
choices, 2010)  In addition, lymph nodes
near the heart and lungs become enlarged. As the TB tries to spread to other
parts of the body, it is often interrupted by the body’s immune system is
unable to fight TB or if the bacteria break through the scar tissue, the
disease returns to an active state with pneumonia and damages the kidneys,
bones and the meninges that line the spinal cord and brain. (National institution of health, 2013)

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A WHO report
shows that India has the highest number of TB resistant strains in the world,
and a person infected with the bacteria is estimated to transmit it to an
estimated 15 people within a year. (World health organisation, 2009) This trend
is in line with the current state of bacterial resistance in the country which
has been criticised for its high level of corruption, lack of sanitation and generally
low adherence of patients. (World health organisation, 2009)

Symptoms: The
symptoms of tuberculosis (TB) depend on where the infection occurs and usually
develops slowly. The symptoms might not begin until months after an individual
is initially infected. (National Institution of Health, 2013)  In some cases the infection does not cause any
symptoms, which is known as latent TB. It’s called active TB if an individual
has symptoms. (NHS inform, 2015) General symptoms of TB may include lack of
appetite, weight lose and high temperature. An individual may also experience
night sweats and extreme tiredness or fatigue. (NHS Choices, 2015) Most
infections affect the lungs, which can cause persistent cough that lasts more than three
weeks and usually brings up phlegm, which may be bloodybreathlessness that gradually gets worse. (NHS
choices, 2015)

Causes: Tuberculosis
is caused by an organism called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (NHS choices.
2015) The bacterium spreads from person to person through microscopic droplets
released into the air. This can happen when someone with the untreated, active
form of tuberculosis coughs, speaks, sneezes, spits, laughs or sings.Therefore,
it is important for healthcare providers to have their face masks and gloves on,
when nursing a person with TB, so that they do not catch the infection. Most
people with active TB who have had appropriate drug treatment for at least two
weeks are no longer contagious. (NHS choices, 2015)


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