As the land concession for economic purposes in

As many parts of the world, Cambodia has
experienced significant land use and land cover change over the last few
decades due to various developments such as physical infrastructure,
urbanization, agricultural expansion and land concession. Cambodian rural area
has changed significantly due to the land concession for economic purposes in
recent years (Scheidel,
Giampietro, & Ramos-Martin, 2013) and it
is commonly agriculture plantation. As an agricultural based country, Cambodia
recognizes agricultural development is one of the top priority developments and
has placed various strategies to support this sector, including the Rectangular
Strategy,  National
Strategic Development Plan (NSDP), National Water Policy (Yu & Diao, 2011).
Agriculture contributes to about one-third of the national growth domestic
product (GDP) and job for more than half of the workforce (Kimsun, Socheth, & Santos, 2011).
Moreover, Cambodia has experienced the healthy economic growth within about 8.0
percent during the period of 2004-2012 which is the high rate of growth among
countries in the region (Ozturk
& Al-Mulali, 2015). This
rapid growth is accomplished by remarkable performance in the agricultural
sector. As the country has great potential for rice production due to its
geographical condition, rich water resources (Yu & Diao, 2011) and
suitable climate condition, rice production in Cambodia is commonly found in
the lowlands of the surrounding lake Tonle Sap and along the Mekong River in
the southern part of the country (Xiao et
al., 2006). This
climate condition is considered as a great advantage for agriculture sector. In
addition, Mekong river and the Great Lake re the two primary and important
sources of water for Cambodia. The Mekong River is the longest and largest
river in South East Asia and it has provided significant benefit for the people
in its watershed and supported diverse and unique ecosystems such as Tonle Sap
Lake in Cambodia (Johnston
& Kummu, 2012). Tonle
Sap Great Lake is the largest fresh water lake in Cambodia as well as in
Southeast Asia.  This Great Lake connects
to Mekong River through Tonle Sap River and it is considered as one of the
major tributaries of the Mekong River. The water in the Great Lake is mainly
depending on the flood from Mekong river. The climate in Cambodia is affected
by two tropical monsoons, the cool with dry north-eastern monsoon from November
to April and the humid southwestern monsoon from May to October (Kabeya et al.,
2007). Therefore, the Great Lake absorbs the inflow from the Mekong river in
the rainy season between May to October and reverses flow to Mekong river in
the dry season from November to April (Sokhem & Sunada, 2006). The
livelihoods of people around the Tonle Sap Great Lake are heavily dependent on
the natural resources of the lake such as fresh water, fishes, fertilized soil
and tt is estimated that about half of Cambodia’s population are benefited
directly or indirectly from this lake (Bonheur
& Lane, 2002; Kummu, Sarkkula, Koponen, & Nikula, 2006) . 


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