Another treatment not only benefits during sub-maximal short


Another
study conducted by Gill, Shield and Blazevich in 2000 (Gill, Shield, & Blazevich, 2000), to determine
whether a higher that therapeutic dose of pseudoephedrine (180mg) would produce
any ergogenic effects during short-term maximal exercise. Twenty-two student
athletes were required and were given pseudophedrine or placebo 45 minutes
prior to testing, which included isometric knee extension, muscle motor unit
activation measurements, bench press at 70% and 100% of one-repetition maximum
(1RM), and a 30 second “all out” cycle test. The results of the experiment
shown that, Pseudoephedrine increased peak torque by 8.6% over placebo during
knee extension, but did not affect muscle activation; the drug did not
influence weight-lifting performance at either 70% or 100% of 1RM and did not
affect total work production during the 30-second cycle ride; however, it did
increase peak power by 2.8% during the later rest.

Combining
ephedrine with caffeine has been associated with improvement of physical
performance. This combination seems timelier now than ever before, since the
use of caffeine and ephedrine-related alkaloids, but no ephedrine itself, is
about to become unrestricted in sports (Associated , 2003). The effects on
caffeine-ephedrine mixtures on athletic performance, ingestion of a combined
dose of caffeine (5mg/kg) plus ephedrine (1mg/kg) resulted in an approximate
38% improvement in time to exhaustion compared with placebo during submaximal
cycle ergometry exercise (Bell, Jacobs, & Zamecnik, Effects of Caffeine, Ephedrine and Their
Combination on Time to Exhaustion During High-intensity Exercise, 1998). This effect was
greater than that of caffeine or ephedrine alone, the latter two being not
significantly different from placebo, and was also preserved with lower drug
doses that minimised adverse effects (Bell, Jacobs, & McLellan, 2000). In addition, the
combined drug treatment not only benefits during sub-maximal short and
long-term exercise, but in various other exercise modalities as well. This was
proved by Bell et al. (Bell, Jacobs, & McLellan, 2000) by demonstrated a
small (1-2%) but significantly increase in power output during the 30 second
Wingate test following ingestion of ephedrine alone or in combination with
caffeine, compared with caffeine alone or placebo. 

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Ephedra
and ephedrine containing products have received considerable scrutiny because
of safety concerns (Dhar, Stout, Link, Homound, & Weinstock, 2005). The adverse effect
of the ephedra to the cardiovascular events has been reviewed independently and
extensively and has been shown to be associated with both ischemic and
haemorrhagic stroke, coronary vasospasm, acute myocardial infarction,
tachycardia induced cardiomyopathy and sudden death (Flanagan, Kaesberg, Mitchell , Ferguson, & Haigney, 2010).

Due to
its adverse events, ephedrine substance was banned for amateur sporting events
and use of Ephedra from dietary supplements is likely to disqualify athletes in
drug-tested events (Bucci, 2000).  Even though Ephedra has an obvious ergogenic
potential for many sport events alone or combined with other herbs, especially
with caffeine, it is not recommended as ergogenic nsutritional supplement since
it is in the WADA prohibited list 2014 at the moment and it may also increase
the risk of cardiovascular events. 

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