Objectives:As per the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, the objectives of conservation of biodiversity are: (a) To increase public awareness through media, government agencies, NGOs, etc. (b) To implement strict restrictions on export of rare plants and animals. (c) To preserve all varieties of old and new flora, fauna and microbes. (d) To protect natural habitats.
(e) To protect all critically endangered, endangered, and rare species. (f) To reduce pollution. (g) To maintain ecological balance. (h) To utilize the natural resources in a sustainable way. Types:Conservation of biodiversity can be carried out in following ways:
(i) In-situ conservation:
It is the conservation of ecosystems and natural habitats, and the maintenance and recovery of viable populations of species in their natural surroundings, and in the case of domesticated or cultivated species, in the surroundings where they have developed their distinctive properties Advantages:Convenient and economical way as only supportive role is being played.
Disadvantages:It requires a large area for the complete protection of biodiversity. It implies a restriction of human activity and a greater interaction of wildlife with local residents near a reserve forest.
(ii) Ex-situ conservation:
It is the conservation of components of biological diversity outside their natural habitats. It is applicable for those threatened or endangered species whose population is so fragile and habitat fragmented that their survival in wild is no longer possible. Suitable locations for ex-situ conservation of (a) Animals are zoological parks; (b) Plants are botanical gardens.