Abstract: In India agribusiness gives work to expansive populace which lives in villages and completely reliant on it to satisfy their needs. In the most recent decade, an incredible growth has been occurred in the use of electronic infrastructure for agricultural processes and development in India. In the current time, an impressive development in information technology and electronic infrastructure has brought its usage well in the capacity of common people.
The affordability of electronic equipment and IT based applications resulted to a tremendous development in agriculture sector. Farming community at large have started to monitor and control various agricultural activities such as irrigation, foresee climate situation, check soil construction and variety of crop cultures through the various information technology based systems and projects implemented by the Government of India and different State Governments in India. Objective of this paper is to present various features like GPS based remote controlled monitoring, moisture & temperature sensing, intruders scaring, security, leaf wetness and proper irrigation facilities. It makes use of wireless sensor networks for noting the soil properties and environmental factors continuously.
Various sensor nodes are deployed at different locations in the farm. Controlling these parameters are through any remote device or internet services and the operations are performed by interfacing sensors, Wi-Fi, camera with micro-controller. This concept is created as a product and given to the farmer’s welfare. Keywords: IoT, Sensors, GPS, Micro-controller, Wi-Fi I. INTRODUCTION TO SMART AGRICULTUREAs the world is slanting into new advancements and usage it is an essential objective to drift up in agribusiness moreover.
Many researches are done in the field of agriculture. Most undertaking projects con note the utilization of wireless sensor network collect data from different sensors deployed at various nodes and send it through the wireless protocol. The gathered information gives the data about the different various environmental factors.
Monitoring the environmental factors isn’t the total answer for increment the yield of products. There are number of other factors that decline the efficiency to a more prominent degree. Thus computerization must be executed in farming to defeat these issues. So, in order to provide solution to all such problems, it is necessary to develop an integrated system which will take care of all factors affecting the productivity in every stage.
But complete automation in farming isn’t accomplished because of different issues. Despite the fact that it is actualized in the research level it is not given to the farmers as a product to get benefited from the resources. Thus this paper bargains about creating developing smart agriculture using IoT and given to the farmers. II. LITERATURE SURVEY The traditional method and one of the oldest ways in agriculture is the manual method of checking the parameters.
In this methodology the farmers they themselves check each and every parameter and calculate the readings. It not only focuses on developing devices but also on tools to manage, displays and alerts the users using the advantages of a wireless sensor network system. Its objective is to make agriculture smart using automation and IoT technologies. The featuring highlights are smart GPS based remote controlled robot to execute undertakings like weeding, spraying, moisture sensing, human detection and keeping vigilance.The cloud computing devices that can develop a complete computing system from sensors to tools that monitor data from agricultural field images and from human actors on the ground and precisely feed the data into the repositories along with the location as GPS coordinates.
This thought proposes a novel procedure for smart farming by linking a smart sensing system and smart irrigator system through wireless communication technology. It not only proposes a low cost but also efficient wireless sensor network technique to acquire the soil moisture and temperature from various location of farm and as per the need of crop controller to take the decision whether the irrigation is enabled or not. It proposes a novel thought regarding how automated irrigationsystem was implemented to optimize water utilization for agricultural crops. In addition, a gateway unit handles sensor information. The environmental conditions are observed and controlled online by using Ethernet IEEE 802.3.The partial root zone drying process can be implemented to a maximum extent. It is intended for IoT based monitoring system to examine crop environment and the way to improve the efficiency of decision making by analyzing harvest statistics.
In this paper image processing is utilized as an instrument to observe the diseases on fruits during farming, right from plantation to harvesting. The variations are seen in color, texture and morphology. In this paper, greenhouse is a building in which plants are grown in closed environment. It is used to maintain the optimal conditions of the environment, greenhouse management and data acquisition. III. PROPOSED WORK In the field section, different sensors are implemented in the field like temperature sensor, moisture sensor and PIR sensor. The data gathered from these sensors are connected to the micro-controller through RS232.
In control section, the received data is verified with the threshold values. If the data surpasses the threshold value the alarm is switched ON and the LED starts to blink. This alarm is sent as a message to the farmer and automatically the power is switched OFF after sensing. The values are produced in the web page and the farmer gets the detailed description of the values. In manual mode, the user has to switch ON and OFF the micro-controller by pressing the button in the Android Application developed. This is done with the help of GSM Module. In automatic mode, the micro-controller gets switched ON and OFF automatically if the value exceeds the threshold point.
Soon after the micro-controller is started, automatically an alert must be sent to the user. This is achieved by sending a message to the user through the GSM module. Different parameters such as the temperature, humidity, moisture and the PIR sensors shows the threshold value and the water level sensor is used just to showcase the level of water inside a tank or the water resource. IV. HARDWARE USED PIC16F877A-MICRO-CONTROLLER: -The PIC micro-controller 16F877A is one of the most popular micro-controllers in the industry. It is user convenient and easier to handle. The coding or programming of this controller is also easy.
The program that is coded can be easily erased due to the flash memory technology. The micro-controller has wide range of applications used in many huge industries. It is used in security, remote sensors, home appliances and industrial automations. An EEPROM is also featured which is used to store the information permanently like transmitter codes and receives frequencies and some other related data. ARCHITECTUREFig 4.1: Architecture of PIC16F877AGSM MODULEFig 4.2: GSM ModuleGSM Modem is able to take any GSM networkoperator SIM and it can act just like a mobile phonewith its own unique phone number. The necessity touse this is it can use RS-232 protocol which can beeasily connected to the controller.
It can be utilizedlike a phone where it can send and receive SMS andmake a call.The GSM modem is connected to the controllerthrough RS-232. The SMS is sent through theterminal to the number using AT Commands. “ATAttention”commands which is used by thecontroller to control the GSM to perform the desiredfunction. It also has reverse voltage protection andthe LED notifications. It is operated in 900/1800 MHzSOIL MOISTURE SENSORFig 4.3: Soil Moisture SensorSoil moisture sensor is a sensor which detects themoisture content of the soil. The sensor has both theanalog and the digital output.
The digital output isfixed and the analog output threshold can be varied.It works on the principle of open and short circuit.The output is high or low pointed out by the LED.When the soil is dry, the current will not passthrough it and thus it will act as open circuit.
Hencethe output is said to be maximum. When the soil iswet, the current will pass from one terminal to theother and the circuit is said to be short and theoutput will be zero. The sensor is platinum coated tomake the efficiency high. The range of sensing is alsohigh. It is anti-rust and so the sensor has long lifewhich will afford the farmer at a minimum cost.TEMPERATURE SENSORFig 4.
4: Temperature SensorThe LM 35 sensor is highly used because its outputvoltage is linear with the Celsius scaling oftemperature. It does not provide any externaltrimming. It has a wide operating range. Themaximum output is 5V. The output will increase10mV for every one degree rise in temperature.
Therange is from -55 degrees to +150 degrees. There arethree terminals as Vcc, Ground and the analogsensor. It consumes minimum amount of electricity.Thus, it is energy efficient.
It is very efficient inhorticulture. It is user friendly to use.PIR SENSORAll living and non-living things with a temperatureabove absolute zero emit heat energy in the form ofradiation. It is invisible to the human eye since itradiates infrared wavelengths. PIR sensors don’tdetect or measure heat, instead they detect theinfrared radiation emitted or reflected from anobject. It is used to identify the movement ofpeople, animals or other objects.
They arecommonly used in burglar alarms and automaticallyactivated lighting systems. When a human passes inthe field, the temperature at that point will rise fromroom temperature.Fig 4.5: PIR SensorThe sensor converts the resulting change into achange in the output voltage and this triggers thedetection.
V. SOFTWARE USEDPROTEUS 8 SIMULATORProteus 8 is simulation software for various circuitdesigns of micro-controller. It has almost all microcontrollersand electronic components readilyavailable in it and thus it is broadly utilizedsimulator.It can be used to test programs and embeddeddesigns for electronics before actual hardwaretesting. The simulation of programming of microcontrollercan also be done in Proteus. Simulationavoids the risk of damaging hardware due to wrongdesign.
VI. EXPERIMENTATION & RESULTSThe hardware is interfaced with all the sensorsin the board. The hardware components include themicro-controller, alarm, relay, ADC converter, GSMmodule and all the sensors interfaced. The board isinserted with a SIM card which is used tocommunicate with the owner and the recordedvalues.
The output shown below denotes the temperature,soil moisture condition and the intruder detection.The second result is the output from the AndroidApplication that is developed in the mobile phone. Itdetermines the temperature, humidity, moistureand the intruder detection.Fig 6.1: Android application monitoringFig 6.2: Output of Temperature, Moisture, PIRdetectionVII.
FUTURE WORK & CONCLUSION For future improvements it can be upgraded by developing this system for large acres of land. Also the system can be integrated to check the quality of the soil and the growth of crop in each soil. The sensors and micro-controller are not only productively interfaced but also wireless communication is achieved between different nodes. All observations and experimental tests demonstrate that this project is a complete solution to field activities and irrigation problems. Implementation of such a system in the field can definitely help to improve the yield of the crops and overall production.
REFERENCES:1 Swathi Hegde, Shruti Iyer, K.Lakshmisudha, Neha Kale, “Smart Precision Based Agriculture Using Sensors”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975-8887), Volume 146-No.11, July 20112 Nikesh Gondchawar, Dr. R.S.
Kawitkar, “IoT Based3 Smart Agriculture”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering (IJARCCE), Vol.5, Issue 6, June 2016.4 Monika Jhuria, Ashwani Kumar, Rushikesh Borse, “Image Processing for Smart Farming: Detection of Disease and Fruit Grading”, IEEE Second International Conference on Image Information Processing (ICIIP), 2013.5 Orazio Mirabella and Michele Brischetto, “A Hybrid Wired/Wireless Networking Infrastructure for Greenhouse Management”, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol.
60, no. 2, pp 398-407, 2011.6 A.R. Sepaskhah, S.
H. Ahmadi, “A review on partial rootzone drying irrigation. International Journal of Plant Production”, October 2010.7 Terry Howell, Steve Evett, Susan O’Shaughnessy, Paul Colaizzi, and Prasanna Gowda, “Advanced irrigation engineering: precision and precise”, The Dahlia Greidinger International Symposium 2009.8 Dr.N.Suma, Sandra Rhea Samson, S.Saranya, G.Shanmugapriya, R.Subhashri,” IOT Based Smart Agriculture Monitoring System”, International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 177 – 181