Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithms are necessary because
Photo-Voltaic (PV) arrays have a non-linear voltage-current characteristic with
a unique point where the power produced is maximum. This point depends on the
temperature of the panels and on the irradiation conditions. Both conditions
change during the day and are also different depending on the season of the
year. Furthermore, irradiation can change rapidly due to changing atmospheric
conditions such as clouds. It is very important to track the MPP accurately
under all possible conditions so that the maximum available power is always
obtained. This paper presents the hardware design and implementation of a
system that ensures a perpendicular profile of the solar panel with the sun in
order to extract maximum energy falling on it. Renewable energy is rapidly
gaining importance as an energy resource as fossil fuel prices Fluctuate. The
unique feature of the proposed system is that instead of taking the earth as
its reference, it takes the sun as a guiding source. Its active sensors
constantly monitor the sunlight and rotate the panel towards the direction
where the intensity of sunlight is maximum. Temperature sensor is used to
measure the temperature value and is displays in the LCD and also this
information can be viewed in PC. Due to the limited fossil energy and
greenhouse effect, more and more countries are devoting to development and
promotion of renewable energy sources. Among the various renewable energy
sources, solar energy has the advantages of being inexhaustible and noiseless.
Hence, installation of PV energy harvesting systems keeps a rather high growing
rate in recent years. However, the output voltage / current of the solar cells
changes rapidly with the irradiation.
Energy Harvesting, Analysis of Solar Panel, MPPT Algorithms, PV Arrays, Maximum
Temperature Sensor, Non-linear Voltage-Current Characteristic
embedded system is a special-purpose computer system designed to perform a
dedicated function. Unlike a general-purpose computer, such as a personal
computer, an embedded system performs one or few pre-defined tasks, usually
with very specific requirements. Since the system is dedicated to specific
tasks, design engineers can optimize it, reducing the size and cost of the
embedded system combines mechanical, electrical, and chemical components along
with a computer, hidden inside, to perform a single dedicated purpose. There
are more computers on this planet than there are people, and most of these
computers are single-chip microcontrollers that are the brains of an embedded
system. Embedded systems are a ubiquitous component of our everyday lives. We
interact with hundreds of tiny computers every day that are embedded into our
houses, our cars, our bridges, our toys, and our work. As our world has become
more complex, so have the capabilities of the microcontrollers embedded into
our devices. Therefore the world needs a trained workforce to develop and
manage products based on embedded microcontrollers.
innovative aspect of this class is to effectively teach a course with a
substantial lab component within the Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) format.
If MOOC’s are truly going to transform the education, then they must be able to
deliver laboratory classes. This offering will go a long way in unraveling the
perceived complexities in delivering a laboratory experience to tens of
thousands of students. If successful, the techniques developed in this class
will significantly transform the MOOC environment. We believe effective
education requires students to learn by doing. In the traditional academic
setting this active learning is delivered in a lab format.
number of important factors have combined that allow a lab class like this to
be taught at this time. First, we have significant support from industrial
partners ARM Inc and Texas Instruments. Second, the massive growth of embedded
microcontrollers has made the availability of lost-cost development platforms
feasible. Third, your instructors have the passion, patience, and experience of
delivering quality lab experiences to large classes. Fourth, on-line tools now
exist that allow students to interact and support each other.
II. ANALYSIS OF
past years numerous MPPT algorithms have been proposed in the literature,
including perturb-and-observe method, open- and short-circuit method,
incremental conductance algorithm, fussy logic and artificial neural network.
However, it is pointless to use a more expensive or more complicated method if
with a simpler and less expensive one similar results can be obtained.
main technical requirements in developing a practical PV system include which
an optimal control that can extract the maximum output power from the PV arrays
under all operating and weather conditions.
existing system there is no such method of power sharing concept using embedded
technology and GSM. Hence we go for the proposed system.
potential transformer will step down the power supply voltage (0 – 230 V) to (0
– 6 V) level. Then the secondary of the potential transformer will be connected
to the precision rectifier, which is constructed with the help of op–amp. The
advantages of using precision rectifier are it will give peak voltage output as
DC; rest of the circuits will give only RMS output as shown in figure1.
Figure 1: Stepup Transformer
four diodes are connected as shown in figure, the circuit is called as bridge
rectifier. The input to the circuit is applied to the diagonally opposite
corners of the network, and the output is taken from the remaining two corners.
Let us assume that the transformer is working properly and there is a positive
potential, at point A and a negative potential at point B. the positive
potential at point A will forward bias D3 and reverse bias D4.
negative potential at point B will forward bias D1 and reverse D2.
At this time D3 and D1 are forward biased and will allow
current flow to pass through them; D4 and D2 are reverse
biased and will block current flow. The path for current flow is from point B
through D1, up through RL, through D3, through
the secondary of the transformer back to point B. this path is indicated by the
solid arrows. Waveforms (1) and (2) can be observed across D1 and D3.
cycle later the polarity across the secondary of the transformer reverse,
forward biasing D2 and D4 and reverse biasing D1
and D3.Current flow will now be from point A through D4,
up through RL, through D2, through the secondary of T1,
and back to point A. This path is indicated by the broken arrows. Waveforms (3)
and (4) can be observed across D2 and D4.
current flow through RL is always in the same direction. In flowing through RL
this current develops a voltage corresponding to that shown waveform (5). Since
current flows through the load (RL) during both half cycles of the
applied voltage, this bridge rectifier is a full-wave rectifier.
advantage of a bridge rectifier over a conventional full-wave rectifier is that
with a given transformer the bridge rectifier produces a voltage output that is
nearly twice that of the conventional full-wave circuit as shown in figure 2.
Figure 2: AC to DC Bridge Rectifier
regulators comprise a class of widely used ICs. Regulator IC units contain the
circuitry for reference source, comparator amplifier, control device, and
overload protection all in a single IC. IC units provide regulation of either a
fixed positive voltage, a fixed negative voltage, or an adjustable set voltage.
shown in figure 3, a fixed three-terminal voltage regulator has an unregulated
DC input voltage, Vi, applied to one input terminal, a regulated DC output
voltage, Vo, from a second terminal, with the third terminal connected to
ground. The series 78 regulators provide fixed positive regulated voltages from
5 to 24 volts. Similarly, the series 79 regulators provide fixed negative regulated
voltages from 5 to 24 volts.
Figure 3: IC
is a prototype platform (open-source) based on an easy-to-use hardware and
software. It consists of a circuit board, which can be programmed (referred to
as a microcontroller) and ready-made software called ARDUINO IDE (Integrated
Development Environment), which is used to write and upload the computer code
to the physical board as shown in figure 4.
Figure 4: ARDUINO Board
The key features
boards are able to read analog or digital input signals from different sensors
and turn it into an output such as activating a motor, turning LED on/off,
connect to the cloud and many other actions.
Ø You can control
your board functions by sending a set of instructions to the microcontroller on
the board via ARDUINO IDE (referred to as uploading software).
Ø Unlike most
previous programmable circuit boards, ARDUINO does not need an extra piece of
hardware (called a programmer) in order to load a new code onto the board. You
can simply use a USB cable.
the ARDUINO IDE uses a simplified version of C++, making it easier to learn to
Ø Finally, ARDUINO
provides a standard form factor that breaks the functions of the
micro-controller into a more accessible package.
kinds of ARDUINO boards are available depending on different microcontrollers
used. However, all ARDUINO boards have one thing in common: they are programmed
through the ARDUINO IDE. The differences are based on the number of inputs and
outputs (the number of sensors, led, and buttons you can use on a single
board), speed, operating voltage, form factor etc. Some boards are designed to
be embedded and have no programming interface (hardware), which you would need
to buy separately. Some can run directly from a 3.7 V battery, others need at
least 5 V.
ARDUINO board has its own microcontroller. You can assume it as the brain of
your board. The main IC (integrated circuit) on the ARDUINO is slightly
different from board to board. The microcontrollers are usually of the ATMEL
Company. You must know what IC your board has before loading up a new program
from the ARDUINO IDE. This information is available on the top of the IC. For
more details about the IC construction and functions, you can refer to the data
ICSP (12) is an AVR, a tiny programming header for the ARDUINO consisting of
MOSI, MISO, SCK, RESET, VCC, and GND. It is often referred to as an SPI (Serial
Peripheral Interface), which could be considered as an “expansion” of
the output as shown in figure 5.
Figure 5: Microcontroller Pin Diagram
ICSP Pin: Actually, you
are slaving the output device to the master of the SPI bus. Power LED indicator
This LED should light up when you plug your ARDUINO into a power source to
indicate that your board is powered up correctly. If this light does not turn
on, then there is something wrong with the connection. TX (transmit)
and RX (receive) led. They appear in two places on the ARDUINO UNO
board. First, at the digital pins 0 and 1, to indicate the pins responsible for
serial communication. Second, the TX and RX led (13). The
TX led flashes with different speed while sending the serial data.
The speed of flashing depends on the baud rate used by the board. RX
flashes during the receiving process.
Digital I/O: The ARDUINO UNO
board has 14 digital I/O pins (15) (of which 6 provide PWM (Pulse Width
Modulation) output. These pins can be configured to work as input digital pins
to read logic values (0 or 1) or as digital output pins to drive different
modules like led, relays, etc. The pins labeled “~” can be used to generate
AREF: It stands for
Analog Reference. It is sometimes, used to set an external reference voltage
(between 0 and 5 Volts) as the upper limit for the analog input pins. After
learning about the main parts of the ARDUINO UNO board, we are ready to learn
how to set up the ARDUINO IDE. Once we learn this, we will be ready to upload
our program on the ARDUINO board. In this section, we will learn in easy steps,
how to set up the ARDUINO IDE on our computer and prepare the board to receive
the program via USB cable.
Step 1: First you must
have your ARDUINO board (you can choose your favorite board) and a USB cable.
In case you use ARDUINO UNO, ARDUINO Duemilanove, Nano, ARDUINO Mega 2560, or
Diecimila, you will need a standard USB cable (A plug to B plug), the kind you
would connect to a USB printer as shown in the following image. In case you use
ARDUINO Nano, you will need an A to Mini-B cable.
Step 2: Download
ARDUINO IDE Software. You can get different versions of ARDUINO IDE from the
Download page on the ARDUINO Official website. You must select your software,
which is compatible with your operating system (Windows, IOS, or Linux). After
your file download is complete, unzip the file.
Step 3: Power up your
board. The ARDUINO Uno, Mega, Duemilanove and ARDUINO Nano automatically draw
power from either, the USB connection to the computer or an external power
supply. If you are using an ARDUINO Diecimila, you have to make sure that the
board is configured to draw power from the USB connection. The power source is
selected with a jumper, a small piece of plastic that fits onto two of the
three pins between the USB and power jacks. Check that it is on the two pins
closest to the USB port. Connect the ARDUINO board to your computer using the
USB cable. The green power LED (labeled PWR) should glow.
Step 4: Launch ARDUINO
IDE. After your ARDUINO IDE software is downloaded, you need to unzip the
folder. Inside the folder, you can find the application icon with an infinity
label (application.exe). Double click the icon to start the IDE.
Step 5: Open your first
project. Once the software starts, you have two options:
a new project – select File –> New
an existing project example – select File -> Example -> Basics ->
we are selecting just one of the examples with the name Blink. It turns the LED
on and off with some time delay. You can select any other example from the
Step 6: Select your
ARDUINO board. To avoid any error while uploading your program to the board,
you must select the correct ARDUINO board name, which matches with the board
connected to your computer. Go to Tools -> Board and select your board.
Here, we have selected ARDUINO Uno board according to our tutorial, but you
must select the name matching the board that you are using.
Step 7: Select your
serial port. Select the serial device of the ARDUINO board. Go to Tools ->
Serial Port menu. This is likely to be COM3 or higher (COM1 and COM2 are
usually reserved for hardware serial ports). To find out, you can disconnect
your ARDUINO board and re-open the menu, the entry that disappears should be of
the ARDUINO board. Reconnect the board and select that serial port.
Step 8: Upload the
program to your board. Before explaining how we can upload our program to the
board, we must demonstrate the function of each symbol appearing in the ARDUINO
Used to check if there is any compilation error.
Used to upload a program to the ARDUINO board.
Shortcut used to create a new sketch.
Used to directly open one of the example sketches.
Used to save your sketch.
Serial monitor used to receive serial data from the board and send the serial
data to the board.
simply click the “Upload” button in the environment. Wait a few
seconds; you will see the RX and TX leds on the board, flashing. If the upload
is successful, the message “Done uploading” will appear in the status
this system PIC microcontroller is interfaced with current sensors and with GSM
modem. Load is connected to the transformers through a DPDT switch. Base on the
current sensor values the DPDT is operated such that the load is shared by the
two transformers. The power sharing information is sent to the concerned number
via GSM modem. And the overall status of the system can be viewed in PC as
shown in figure 6.
Figure 6: Block
Diagram of Proposed System
energy is rapidly gaining importance as an energy resource as fossil fuel
prices Fluctuate. In this proposed system we are reducing the power loss in
solar panel. When solar energy is going
to peak level at the time temperature sensor will send the signal to the
microcontroller. Microcontroller will switch on the motor by using the driver
circuit. Using this method we can save the solar panel cells and power
generation will produce maximum range with long life as shown in figure 7.
Proposed Circuit Diagram
Working of Solar
Panels or PV Modules:
very basic terms, a solar panel (PV module) is a device that will produce a
flow of electricity under sunlight. This electricity can be used to charge
batteries and, with the aid of an inverter, it can power normal household
electrical devices, or “loads”. PV modules can also be used in
systems without batteries in grid-tie systems. Most PV modules are framed in
aluminum, topped with tempered glass, and sealed by a waterproof backing.
Sandwiched between the glasses and backing layers are the photo-reactive cells
themselves, often made of silicon. On
the back of the module is a junction box that may or may not have two cables
coming out of it. If the junction box has no cables, it can be opened to access
the electrical terminals where wires can be attached to conduct the generated
electricity away from the module. If there are cables already in place, the
junction box is usually sealed and not user-accessible. Sealed junction boxes
are more common as shown in figure 8.There are lots of ways to make use of
Figure 8: Analysis of Solar Panel
of the simplest is to charge small electronic devices, like cell phones and
music players, with lightweight, portable PV modules. These small
battery-charging solar panels are even being integrated into backpacks and
clothing for maximum convenience. These panels can be used individually or
wired together to form a solar array.
larger electrical loads, there are two main types of systems for providing
electrical power to homes, cabins and offices, etc: stand-alone battery based
systems (also called ‘off-grid’ systems) and grid-tied systems (also known as
utility-interactive). You’ll want to decide which system is best for your needs
by reading more about both.
V RESULT ANALYSIS
solar panel absorbs sun light at high temperature solar cells get damaged. It
will reduce the efficiency of panel. To overcome this damage we are going for
proposed system. With the cooling system deactivated, the normal temperature of
solar panel is around 20 volts.
Figure 9: Without Coolant
this system, a cooling method is proposed to reduce the damage of solar cells
due to over- heating irradiance condition. This is an initiative method for
cooling which takes longer time. The data analyzed is taken short period of
time, but it takes a longer duration for the circuit to operate. By cooling the
panel we could reduce the damage of solar cells and hence improve its
efficiency. The maximum limit for solar panel is 100o Fahrenheit.
When it exceeds the limit the circuit is activated and motor circulates the
energy rapidly gaining importance as an energy resource as fossil fuel prices
fluctuate. In this proposed system we are reducing the power loss in solar
panel. An increase in the operating temperature of the panel affects the solar
cell efficiency of the system. When solar panel is going to peak level at the
time temperature sensor will send the signal to the microcontroller.
Microcontroller will switch on the motor by using the driver circuit. Then
cooling system will reduce the heat. It could be said that the water – cooled
photovoltaic has a good potential in providing electricity as well as warm
water for preheating applications. Water as a coolant medium is extracting heat
more efficiently than air.
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