Abstract:-Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithms are necessary becausePhoto-Voltaic (PV) arrays have a non-linear voltage-current characteristic witha unique point where the power produced is maximum. This point depends on thetemperature of the panels and on the irradiation conditions. Both conditionschange during the day and are also different depending on the season of theyear. Furthermore, irradiation can change rapidly due to changing atmosphericconditions such as clouds. It is very important to track the MPP accuratelyunder all possible conditions so that the maximum available power is alwaysobtained. This paper presents the hardware design and implementation of asystem that ensures a perpendicular profile of the solar panel with the sun inorder to extract maximum energy falling on it.
Renewable energy is rapidlygaining importance as an energy resource as fossil fuel prices Fluctuate. Theunique feature of the proposed system is that instead of taking the earth asits reference, it takes the sun as a guiding source. Its active sensorsconstantly monitor the sunlight and rotate the panel towards the directionwhere the intensity of sunlight is maximum.
Temperature sensor is used tomeasure the temperature value and is displays in the LCD and also thisinformation can be viewed in PC. Due to the limited fossil energy andgreenhouse effect, more and more countries are devoting to development andpromotion of renewable energy sources. Among the various renewable energysources, solar energy has the advantages of being inexhaustible and noiseless.Hence, installation of PV energy harvesting systems keeps a rather high growingrate in recent years. However, the output voltage / current of the solar cellschanges rapidly with the irradiation. Keywords -Energy Harvesting, Analysis of Solar Panel, MPPT Algorithms, PV Arrays, MaximumTemperature Sensor, Non-linear Voltage-Current Characteristic I. INTRODUCTION Anembedded system is a special-purpose computer system designed to perform adedicated function.
Unlike a general-purpose computer, such as a personalcomputer, an embedded system performs one or few pre-defined tasks, usuallywith very specific requirements. Since the system is dedicated to specifictasks, design engineers can optimize it, reducing the size and cost of theproduct. Anembedded system combines mechanical, electrical, and chemical components alongwith a computer, hidden inside, to perform a single dedicated purpose. Thereare more computers on this planet than there are people, and most of thesecomputers are single-chip microcontrollers that are the brains of an embeddedsystem.
Embedded systems are a ubiquitous component of our everyday lives. Weinteract with hundreds of tiny computers every day that are embedded into ourhouses, our cars, our bridges, our toys, and our work. As our world has becomemore complex, so have the capabilities of the microcontrollers embedded intoour devices. Therefore the world needs a trained workforce to develop andmanage products based on embedded microcontrollers. Theinnovative aspect of this class is to effectively teach a course with asubstantial lab component within the Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) format.If MOOC’s are truly going to transform the education, then they must be able todeliver laboratory classes. This offering will go a long way in unraveling theperceived complexities in delivering a laboratory experience to tens ofthousands of students.
If successful, the techniques developed in this classwill significantly transform the MOOC environment. We believe effectiveeducation requires students to learn by doing. In the traditional academicsetting this active learning is delivered in a lab format. Anumber of important factors have combined that allow a lab class like this tobe taught at this time. First, we have significant support from industrialpartners ARM Inc and Texas Instruments. Second, the massive growth of embeddedmicrocontrollers has made the availability of lost-cost development platformsfeasible. Third, your instructors have the passion, patience, and experience ofdelivering quality lab experiences to large classes.
Fourth, on-line tools nowexist that allow students to interact and support each other. II. ANALYSIS OFSOLAR PANEL Inpast years numerous MPPT algorithms have been proposed in the literature,including perturb-and-observe method, open- and short-circuit method,incremental conductance algorithm, fussy logic and artificial neural network.However, it is pointless to use a more expensive or more complicated method ifwith a simpler and less expensive one similar results can be obtained. Themain technical requirements in developing a practical PV system include whichan optimal control that can extract the maximum output power from the PV arraysunder all operating and weather conditions.
Inexisting system there is no such method of power sharing concept using embeddedtechnology and GSM. Hence we go for the proposed system. Thepotential transformer will step down the power supply voltage (0 – 230 V) to (0– 6 V) level. Then the secondary of the potential transformer will be connectedto the precision rectifier, which is constructed with the help of op–amp. Theadvantages of using precision rectifier are it will give peak voltage output asDC; rest of the circuits will give only RMS output as shown in figure1. Figure 1: Stepup Transformer Whenfour diodes are connected as shown in figure, the circuit is called as bridgerectifier. The input to the circuit is applied to the diagonally oppositecorners of the network, and the output is taken from the remaining two corners.
Let us assume that the transformer is working properly and there is a positivepotential, at point A and a negative potential at point B. the positivepotential at point A will forward bias D3 and reverse bias D4. Thenegative potential at point B will forward bias D1 and reverse D2.At this time D3 and D1 are forward biased and will allowcurrent flow to pass through them; D4 and D2 are reversebiased and will block current flow. The path for current flow is from point Bthrough D1, up through RL, through D3, throughthe secondary of the transformer back to point B.
this path is indicated by thesolid arrows. Waveforms (1) and (2) can be observed across D1 and D3. One-halfcycle later the polarity across the secondary of the transformer reverse,forward biasing D2 and D4 and reverse biasing D1and D3.Current flow will now be from point A through D4,up through RL, through D2, through the secondary of T1,and back to point A.
This path is indicated by the broken arrows. Waveforms (3)and (4) can be observed across D2 and D4. Thecurrent flow through RL is always in the same direction. In flowing through RLthis current develops a voltage corresponding to that shown waveform (5). Sincecurrent flows through the load (RL) during both half cycles of theapplied voltage, this bridge rectifier is a full-wave rectifier. Oneadvantage of a bridge rectifier over a conventional full-wave rectifier is thatwith a given transformer the bridge rectifier produces a voltage output that isnearly twice that of the conventional full-wave circuit as shown in figure 2.
Figure 2: AC to DC Bridge Rectifier Voltageregulators comprise a class of widely used ICs. Regulator IC units contain thecircuitry for reference source, comparator amplifier, control device, andoverload protection all in a single IC. IC units provide regulation of either afixed positive voltage, a fixed negative voltage, or an adjustable set voltage.
Asshown in figure 3, a fixed three-terminal voltage regulator has an unregulatedDC input voltage, Vi, applied to one input terminal, a regulated DC outputvoltage, Vo, from a second terminal, with the third terminal connected toground. The series 78 regulators provide fixed positive regulated voltages from5 to 24 volts. Similarly, the series 79 regulators provide fixed negative regulatedvoltages from 5 to 24 volts.
Figure 3: ICVoltage Regulator III. ARDUINO ARDUINOis a prototype platform (open-source) based on an easy-to-use hardware andsoftware. It consists of a circuit board, which can be programmed (referred toas a microcontroller) and ready-made software called ARDUINO IDE (IntegratedDevelopment Environment), which is used to write and upload the computer codeto the physical board as shown in figure 4. Figure 4: ARDUINO BoardThe key featuresare: ARDUINOboards are able to read analog or digital input signals from different sensorsand turn it into an output such as activating a motor, turning LED on/off,connect to the cloud and many other actions. Ø You can controlyour board functions by sending a set of instructions to the microcontroller onthe board via ARDUINO IDE (referred to as uploading software).Ø Unlike mostprevious programmable circuit boards, ARDUINO does not need an extra piece ofhardware (called a programmer) in order to load a new code onto the board. Youcan simply use a USB cable.
Ø Additionally,the ARDUINO IDE uses a simplified version of C++, making it easier to learn toprogram.Ø Finally, ARDUINOprovides a standard form factor that breaks the functions of themicro-controller into a more accessible package. Variouskinds of ARDUINO boards are available depending on different microcontrollersused. However, all ARDUINO boards have one thing in common: they are programmedthrough the ARDUINO IDE.
The differences are based on the number of inputs andoutputs (the number of sensors, led, and buttons you can use on a singleboard), speed, operating voltage, form factor etc. Some boards are designed tobe embedded and have no programming interface (hardware), which you would needto buy separately. Some can run directly from a 3.7 V battery, others need atleast 5 V. EachARDUINO board has its own microcontroller. You can assume it as the brain ofyour board. The main IC (integrated circuit) on the ARDUINO is slightlydifferent from board to board. The microcontrollers are usually of the ATMELCompany.
You must know what IC your board has before loading up a new programfrom the ARDUINO IDE. This information is available on the top of the IC. Formore details about the IC construction and functions, you can refer to the datasheet. Mostly,ICSP (12) is an AVR, a tiny programming header for the ARDUINO consisting ofMOSI, MISO, SCK, RESET, VCC, and GND. It is often referred to as an SPI (SerialPeripheral Interface), which could be considered as an “expansion” ofthe output as shown in figure 5. Figure 5: Microcontroller Pin Diagram ICSP Pin: Actually, youare slaving the output device to the master of the SPI bus. Power LED indicatorThis LED should light up when you plug your ARDUINO into a power source toindicate that your board is powered up correctly.
If this light does not turnon, then there is something wrong with the connection. TX (transmit)and RX (receive) led. They appear in two places on the ARDUINO UNOboard. First, at the digital pins 0 and 1, to indicate the pins responsible forserial communication. Second, the TX and RX led (13). TheTX led flashes with different speed while sending the serial data.The speed of flashing depends on the baud rate used by the board.
RXflashes during the receiving process. Digital I/O: The ARDUINO UNOboard has 14 digital I/O pins (15) (of which 6 provide PWM (Pulse WidthModulation) output. These pins can be configured to work as input digital pinsto read logic values (0 or 1) or as digital output pins to drive differentmodules like led, relays, etc. The pins labeled “~” can be used to generatePWM.AREF: It stands forAnalog Reference. It is sometimes, used to set an external reference voltage(between 0 and 5 Volts) as the upper limit for the analog input pins.
Afterlearning about the main parts of the ARDUINO UNO board, we are ready to learnhow to set up the ARDUINO IDE. Once we learn this, we will be ready to uploadour program on the ARDUINO board. In this section, we will learn in easy steps,how to set up the ARDUINO IDE on our computer and prepare the board to receivethe program via USB cable.
Step 1: First you musthave your ARDUINO board (you can choose your favorite board) and a USB cable.In case you use ARDUINO UNO, ARDUINO Duemilanove, Nano, ARDUINO Mega 2560, orDiecimila, you will need a standard USB cable (A plug to B plug), the kind youwould connect to a USB printer as shown in the following image. In case you useARDUINO Nano, you will need an A to Mini-B cable.Step 2: DownloadARDUINO IDE Software. You can get different versions of ARDUINO IDE from theDownload page on the ARDUINO Official website. You must select your software,which is compatible with your operating system (Windows, IOS, or Linux).
Afteryour file download is complete, unzip the file. Step 3: Power up yourboard. The ARDUINO Uno, Mega, Duemilanove and ARDUINO Nano automatically drawpower from either, the USB connection to the computer or an external powersupply.
If you are using an ARDUINO Diecimila, you have to make sure that theboard is configured to draw power from the USB connection. The power source isselected with a jumper, a small piece of plastic that fits onto two of thethree pins between the USB and power jacks. Check that it is on the two pinsclosest to the USB port. Connect the ARDUINO board to your computer using theUSB cable. The green power LED (labeled PWR) should glow.Step 4: Launch ARDUINOIDE. After your ARDUINO IDE software is downloaded, you need to unzip thefolder.
Inside the folder, you can find the application icon with an infinitylabel (application.exe). Double click the icon to start the IDE.Step 5: Open your firstproject. Once the software starts, you have two options: Createa new project – select File –> NewOpenan existing project example – select File -> Example -> Basics ->Blink. Here,we are selecting just one of the examples with the name Blink. It turns the LEDon and off with some time delay.
You can select any other example from thelist.Step 6: Select yourARDUINO board. To avoid any error while uploading your program to the board,you must select the correct ARDUINO board name, which matches with the boardconnected to your computer. Go to Tools -> Board and select your board.Here, we have selected ARDUINO Uno board according to our tutorial, but youmust select the name matching the board that you are using.Step 7: Select yourserial port. Select the serial device of the ARDUINO board. Go to Tools ->Serial Port menu.
This is likely to be COM3 or higher (COM1 and COM2 areusually reserved for hardware serial ports). To find out, you can disconnectyour ARDUINO board and re-open the menu, the entry that disappears should be ofthe ARDUINO board. Reconnect the board and select that serial port.
Step 8: Upload theprogram to your board. Before explaining how we can upload our program to theboard, we must demonstrate the function of each symbol appearing in the ARDUINOIDE toolbar. A-Used to check if there is any compilation error.B-Used to upload a program to the ARDUINO board.C-Shortcut used to create a new sketch.D-Used to directly open one of the example sketches.E-Used to save your sketch.F-Serial monitor used to receive serial data from the board and send the serialdata to the board.
Now,simply click the “Upload” button in the environment. Wait a fewseconds; you will see the RX and TX leds on the board, flashing. If the uploadis successful, the message “Done uploading” will appear in the statusbar. IV. ENERGYHARVESTING Inthis system PIC microcontroller is interfaced with current sensors and with GSMmodem. Load is connected to the transformers through a DPDT switch.
Base on thecurrent sensor values the DPDT is operated such that the load is shared by thetwo transformers. The power sharing information is sent to the concerned numbervia GSM modem. And the overall status of the system can be viewed in PC asshown in figure 6.
Figure 6: BlockDiagram of Proposed System Renewableenergy is rapidly gaining importance as an energy resource as fossil fuelprices Fluctuate. In this proposed system we are reducing the power loss insolar panel. When solar energy is goingto peak level at the time temperature sensor will send the signal to themicrocontroller. Microcontroller will switch on the motor by using the drivercircuit. Using this method we can save the solar panel cells and powergeneration will produce maximum range with long life as shown in figure 7.Figure 7:Proposed Circuit Diagram Working of SolarPanels or PV Modules: Invery basic terms, a solar panel (PV module) is a device that will produce aflow of electricity under sunlight.
This electricity can be used to chargebatteries and, with the aid of an inverter, it can power normal householdelectrical devices, or “loads”. PV modules can also be used insystems without batteries in grid-tie systems. Most PV modules are framed inaluminum, topped with tempered glass, and sealed by a waterproof backing.Sandwiched between the glasses and backing layers are the photo-reactive cellsthemselves, often made of silicon.
Onthe back of the module is a junction box that may or may not have two cablescoming out of it. If the junction box has no cables, it can be opened to accessthe electrical terminals where wires can be attached to conduct the generatedelectricity away from the module. If there are cables already in place, thejunction box is usually sealed and not user-accessible. Sealed junction boxesare more common as shown in figure 8.There are lots of ways to make use ofsolar electricity.
Figure 8: Analysis of Solar Panel Oneof the simplest is to charge small electronic devices, like cell phones andmusic players, with lightweight, portable PV modules. These smallbattery-charging solar panels are even being integrated into backpacks andclothing for maximum convenience. These panels can be used individually orwired together to form a solar array. Forlarger electrical loads, there are two main types of systems for providingelectrical power to homes, cabins and offices, etc: stand-alone battery basedsystems (also called ‘off-grid’ systems) and grid-tied systems (also known asutility-interactive). You’ll want to decide which system is best for your needsby reading more about both. V RESULT ANALYSIS Whensolar panel absorbs sun light at high temperature solar cells get damaged.
Itwill reduce the efficiency of panel. To overcome this damage we are going forproposed system. With the cooling system deactivated, the normal temperature ofsolar panel is around 20 volts. Figure 9: Without Coolant Inthis system, a cooling method is proposed to reduce the damage of solar cellsdue to over- heating irradiance condition. This is an initiative method forcooling which takes longer time. The data analyzed is taken short period oftime, but it takes a longer duration for the circuit to operate. By cooling thepanel we could reduce the damage of solar cells and hence improve itsefficiency. The maximum limit for solar panel is 100o Fahrenheit.
When it exceeds the limit the circuit is activated and motor circulates thewater. VI CONCLUSION Renewableenergy rapidly gaining importance as an energy resource as fossil fuel pricesfluctuate. In this proposed system we are reducing the power loss in solarpanel. An increase in the operating temperature of the panel affects the solarcell efficiency of the system.
When solar panel is going to peak level at thetime temperature sensor will send the signal to the microcontroller.Microcontroller will switch on the motor by using the driver circuit. Thencooling system will reduce the heat.
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