A CertificationThis is to certify that this


A SEMINAR REPORTONBACTERIA AND ITS ROLE IN WATER – BORNE DISEASES.

BYBOLARINWA IBRAHIM OYEJDEMCB/2013/216SUBMITTED TO DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY,FACULTY OF SCIENCE,OBAFEMI AWOLOWO UNIVERSITY,ILE-IFE, OSUN STATE.IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTFOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE(B.sc) IN MICROBIOLOGY.

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SEMINAR SUPERVISOR: DR. (MRS) C.D FASHINASEMINAR COORDINATOR: DR. OMOLOLU JANUARY, 2018.DedicationTo God almighty be the Glory.Acknowledgement I thank my seminar supervisor, Dr (Mrs) Fashina, who gave me this interesting topic to work on. It was indeed inspiring.

 Also, my sincere gratitude goes to my family, friends and well-wishers for their love and support.Ultimately, I acknowledge God for seeing me through this work. CertificationThis is to certify that this seminar work was carried out by Bolarinwa Ibrahim Oyejide (MCB/2013/216) of the Department of Microbiology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, in accordance with partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Bachelor of Science (B.sc) degree in the Department of Microbiology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun state.

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..                                                                                   ……………………Date and signature                                                                                   Date and signature Table of contentTitle page……………………………………………………………………………………Dedication …………………………………………………………………………………..

.…Acknowledgement ……………………………………………………………………….……..Certification …………………………………………………………………………………….

.Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………..

Chapter 1: Bacteria ………………………………………..…………………………………….

Chapter 2: Water and water pollution ……………………………………………………………Chapter 3: role of bacteria in water borne diseases……………………………………………..                    3.

1: ……………………..                    3.2: ………………………………………….Chapter 4: conclusion and recommendations …………………………………………………..References …………………………………………………………………………………….

. CHAPTER ONEBACTERIABacteria are procaryotes that are usually single-celled organisms. Most have cell walls that contain the structural molecule peptidoglycan. They are abundant in soil, water, and air, and are major inhabitants of our skin, mouth, and intestines. Some bacteria live in environments that have extreme temperatures, pH or salinity.

Although some bacteria cause disease, many more play beneficial roles such as cycling elements in the biosphere, breaking down dead plant and animal material and producing vitamins.Cyanobacteria (once called blue-green algae) produce significant amounts of oxygen through the process of photosynthesis.SHAPES OF BACTERIAAlthough a good deal of variation is possible, most have one of three basic shapes 1. Rod shaped (bacillus)2. Spherical (coccus)3. Curved: these range from comma-shaped (vibrio) to corkscrew-shaped. (spirochaete)All these shapes confer certain advantages to them; rods, with a large surface area are better able to take up nutrients from the environment, while the cocci are less prone to drying out. The spiral forms are usually motile; their shape aids their movement through an aqueous medium.

As well as these characteristic cell shapes, bacteria may also be found grouped together in particular formations. When they divide, they may remain attached to one another, and the shape the groups of cells assume reflects the way the cell divides. Cocci are frequently found as chains of cells, a reflection of repeated division in one plane. Other cocci may form regular sheets or packets of cells, as a result of division in two or three planes.

Others such as the staphylococci, divide in several planes, producing the irregular and characteristic ‘bunch of grapes’ appearance.Rod-shaped bacteria only divide in a single plane and may therefore be found in chains, while spiral forms also divide in one plane, but tend not to stick together.Blue–greens form filaments; these are regarded as truly multicellular rather than as a loose association of individuals.STRUCTURE OF A BACTERIA CELLCapsule Ribosomes Cell Wall Plasma Membrane Nucleoid        Fimbriae Chromosome (DNA)                 Inclusion body  Flagellum      CHAPTER TWOWATER AND WATER POLLUTIONThe significance of water to human and other biological systems cannot be over emphasised, and there are numerous scientific and economic facts that, water shortage or its pollution can cause severe decrease in productivity and deaths of living species.Water of good drinking quality is the most important and basic requirement of human life. Its better quality is necessary for human development, good health and wellbeing. (Farooqi et al, 2009).QUALITY OF GOOD DRINKING WATERThere are certain physical, chemical and microbiological standards which govern the safety and suitability of water for human consumption.

(Omezuruike et al, 2008).It should be free of any colour, odour, unpleasant taste or any microbiological organism.The developing countries face the problem of safe water provision to its population. (Amouei et al. 2011).SOURCES OF WATERThe common sources of water that are available to local communities in Nigeria are fast being severed by a number of anthropogenic factors, of which pollution remain the most dominant problem.

In many developing countries, Nigeria in particular, more than half of the population is affected. Water resources available in Nigeria can be broadly classified into fresh and marine water resources. The former constitute the fraction that should ideally be accessible to all communities. They comprise of water from lakes, hand dug wells, taps, boreholes, streams, rivers and their plains, wetlands and those available in underground reservoirs.Fresh waters represent the main sources of safe water for household, agricultural and even industrial applications.

They are required for drinking, cooking, recreational activities, farming, fishing etc., making them unavoidable for the evolution of society and civilisation (Orubu, 2006).However, in Nigeria today the fresh water sources available to the local inhabitants are either unsafe or difficult to obtain and are severely stressed by poor management. These makes access to clean water a serious problem, in some instances women and children need to walk for hours to fetch ordinary drinking water.   WATER POLLUTIONWater pollution occurs when unwanted materials with potentials to threaten human and other natural systems find their ways into rivers, lakes, wells, streams, boreholes or even reserved fresh water in homes and industries. The pollutants are usually pathogens, silt and suspended solid particles such as soils, sewage materials, disposed foods, cosmetics, automobile emissions, construction debris and eroded banks from rivers and other waterways. Some of these pollutants are decomposed by the action of micro-organisms through oxidation and other processes.Not long ago, research have documented varying levels of microbial contaminations in drinking water from western parts of the country.

Total bacteria and coliform counts were found to be between 2.86 -4.45 and < 1.62 log cfu/ml respectively. (Olaoye and Onilude 2009).In addition to microbial infections, heavy metals poisoning through drinking water have also been documented. (Nriagu et al. 1997) reported blood lead levels greater than 30 ?g/dl in children from Kaduna states.

The elevated levels were linearly correlated with water and air contaminations by lead emissions. (Garba et al. 2010) reported a mean arsenic concentration of 0.34 mg/l in drinking water from hand dug wells, boreholes and taps of Karaye Local Government area, Kano state. The arsenic levels are of serious concerns to regulatory agencies because they by far exceed the upper band (0.01 mg/l) recommended by WHO.CHAPTER THREEWATER BORNE DISEASESClean water is a pre-requisite for reducing the spread of water-borne diseases.

It is well recognized that the prevalence of water-borne diseases can be greatly reduced by provision of clean drinking water and safe disposal of faeces.Disease Pathogen(s) Transmission SymptomsBacterial Cholera Vibrio cholerae Fecal-oral Acute, profuse waterydiarrhea, dehydrationGastroenteritis  Escherichia coli,Campylobacterspp., Salmonellaspp. Fecal-oral,person?person, oranimal?person Watery or loosestools, stomachcrampsTyphoid  Salmonella typhi Fecal-oral Fever, headache,nausea, loss ofappetite, constipationExamples of bacterial Water-borne DiseasesWater-borne Disease is transmitted or spread through contaminated water. Pathogenic microbes and some parasitic organisms are responsible for various diseases.

Such infectious pathogens survive and spread in the environment using various strategies. The main source of spread is through water.Every year globally, 10.8 million children die before they turn 5 and 70% of them die before they turn 1.

Thought child mortality has declined since 1980, it still remains high due to diarrhoea, malaria and other water borne diseases. It is well known that diarrheal disease is one of the leading causes of illness and death in young children in developing countries. (Parashar et al. 2003).A study by (Umeh et al. 2004) showed that 48% of the people in Katsina-Ala Local Government area of Benue state are affected by urinary schistosomiasis, due to increase in water pollution index. Previous investigations indicate that 19% of the whole Nigerian population is affected, with some communities having up to 50% incidence.Reports by Food and Agricultural Organisation (WHO) revealed that in African countries, particularly Nigeria, water related diseases had been interfering with basic human development (FAO, 2007).

According to World Health Organization (WHO) half of the population of developing countries is sufferer of waterborne diseases round the year and 3.4 million people die annually due to consumption of faecal contaminated water, among these children and infants are a majority. (Shar et al. 2009).The developed countries have policies of monitoring the safety level of drinking water due to its importance but several outbursts of waterborne diseases still occur throughout the year in developing countries. (Anwar et al. 2010).

Worried by the increasing spate of water borne diseases in this part of the world, researchers have investigated the quality of water samples drawn from private wells and springs in Oregun, Lagos in Nigeria. Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii and Klebsilla pneumoniae were found as the most frequently isolated total coliform from water samples (Lamka et al., 1980). Staphylococcus aureus and Aeromonas hydrophila were isolated from total plate counts.Similarly, in a different study Escherichia coli, Klebsilla aerogenes, K.

edwardsii,K. rhonsleromatic, K. stlantae, Entrobacter spp and Citrobacter spp. were identified in water samples collected from wells in Ago-Iwoye town, Nigeria (Fagade and Osho, 1996). All these isolated bacteria are indicators that water from these various sources are contaminated and therefore unfit for human consumption.

CHAPTER FOURCONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONREFERENCES1. Amouei A., Miranzadeh M.B., Shahandeh Z., Taheri T., Asharnia H.A.

, Akbarpour S. A study on microbial quality of drinking water in rural areas of Mazandaran province in north of Iran (2011). J Environ Protect 2012; 3:605-9.2.

Anwar M.S., Lateef S., Siddiqi G.M. Bacteriological quality of drinking water in Lahore. Journal of Biomedical Science 2010; 26:66-9.3.

Fagade, O.E. & Osho, A.

(1996) Preliminary studies into the microbiology quality of well water samples in Ago-Iwoye using the coliform group of organisms. Journal of Pure and Applied Science 5, 51-56.4. Farooqi A.

, Khan A, Kazmi SU. Investigation of a community outbreak of typhoid fever associated with drinking water. BMC Public Health 2009; 9:476.5. Galadima, A., Garba, Z. N.

, Leke, L., Almustapha, M. N. and Adam, I.

K.6. Lamka, K.G., Lechevallier, M.W. & Seidler, R.

J. (1980) Bacteria contamination of drinking water supplies in a modern rural neighbourhood. Journal of Applied and Environmental Microbiology 39, 734–738.7. Omezuruike, O.

I., Damilola, A.O., Adeola O.

T., Fajobi, E.A. and Olufunke, S.B. Microbiological and physiochemical analysis of different water samples used for domestic purposes in Abeokuta and Ojota, Lagos State, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 2008; 7:617-21.8.

Parashar, D.U., Bresee, J.

S., & Roger, G.(2003). The global burden of diarrhoeal disease in children, Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2003, 81 (4).9. Shar, A.H.

, Kazi, Y.F., Zardari, M. and Soomro, I.

H. Bacteriological quality of drinking water of Sukkur city. Pak J Med Res 2009; 48:88-90

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