A. Issue BackgroundSine The 21stCentury began, the world’s attention focus on Gender Equality and Women’sEmpowerment more increasing. In Indonesia itself, Gender Equality and Women’sEmpowerment exist since R.
A Kartini fought for women’s rights especially inEducation. Issues of Gender Equality still be a serious problem. In recenttimes, on mass media, books, seminars, discussion and so on have discussedprotests and lawsuits related to injustice and discrimination against women.This injustice anddiscrimination has happened not only in Indonesia, but also in other countries,and also occured in many aspects such as religion, culture, politic, economicuntil the level of the household. Discriminatory treatment and inequality cancause harm and decrease the welfare of life for women whose rights arerestricted. A variety of ways areunderway to reduce Gender Inequality that causes social injustice. The efforthas done by individuals, groups, institutions, even by the state within thelocal, national and international scope. These efforts are directed to,Ensuring Equality of Rights, Proactive Policy Developers Addressing GenderDisparities, and Increasing Political Participation.
Choosing gender equality tobe a topic of discussion from other goals proclaimed by Suitabel DevelopmentGoals (SGDs), because as a woman, I want to women’s rights be approved in everyaspect and all over the world. Because, in general, God created men and womenwithout distinction of rights that must be owned. B. Formulation of The Problem 1. What is the definitionof Gender Equality?2. What is Women’sEmpowerment?3.
How is thebeginning of Gender Equality?4. How is the developmentof gender equality and issues of gender equality in Indonesia?5. How arePancasila view of Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment? C.
Goals and Benefits1. To know theimportance of Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment2. To find out thecause of the emergence of Gender Equality3. To know thedevelopment of Gender Equality and its problems in Indonesia4.
To know GenderEquality and Women’s Empowerment from Pancasila’s perspective5. To be a basicimplementation Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in Indonesia CHAPTER IIDiscussion a. Definition of Gender EqualityIn understanding the study of gender equality, onemust first to know the difference between gender and sex.
A lack ofunderstanding of Gender’s understanding becomes one of the causes in oppositionto accepting a gender analysis in a matter of social injustice.According to Hugo (2007) “Sex is the differencebetween women and men biologically since someone was born. Sex relates to themale and female bodies, in which men produce sperm, while women produce eggcells and are biologically capable of menstruating, pregnant and lactating.Biological differences and biological functions of men and women cannot be exchangedbetween the two. “And according to Fakih (2006) “Gender is a propertyinherent in men and women who are constructed socially and culturally. Changesin characteristics and traits that occur from time to time and from place toplace are called the gender concept.”1From the description above can be concluded thedifference between sex with gender, gender more leaning towards one’s physicalwhile gender more skew in its behavior.
Besides gender is an inherent statuswhile gender is the status obtained or gained. Gender is not biological, butsocially constructed. Since gender is not carried from birth, but learnedthrough socialization, gender can therefore change.After knowing the differences between sex andgender, next we can understand what is gender equality. Gender Equality is Genderequality is achieved when women and men enjoy the same rights and opportunitiesacross all sectors of society, including economic participation anddecision-making, and when the different behaviors, aspirations and needs ofwomen and men are equally valued and favored.2Gender equality is linked to gender justice. Genderjustice is a process and fair treatment of men and women.
The realization ofgender equality and justice is characterized by the absence of discriminationagainst both men and women. So that everybody has access, an opportunity toparticipate, and control over development and obtain equitable and fairbenefits from the development.Having access to the above has an interpretation thateveryone has an opportunity in obtaining fair and equal access to resources andhas the authority to make decisions on how to use and the results of thoseresources. Having participation means having the opportunity to create orparticipate in national development. While having control means having theauthority to make decisions on the use and results of resources. So everybody getsthe same benefits from development. b. Definition of Women’s EmpowermentWomen Empowerment refers to the creation of anenvironment for women where they can make decisions of their own for theirpersonal benefits as well as for the society.
Women Empowerment refers toincreasing and improving the social, economic, political and legal strength ofthe women, to ensure equal-right to women, and to make them confident enough toclaim their rights, such as: freely live their life with a sense of self-worth,respect and dignity, have complete control of their life, both within andoutside of their home and workplace, to make their own choices and decisions, haveequal rights to participate in social, religious and public activities,have equalsocial status in the society, have equal rights for social and economicjustice, get equal opportunity for education, and get equal employment opportunitywithout any gender bias. c. The beginning of Gender EqualityWith these gender inequalities that resulting in theabandonment of women’s human rights in the course of history, encouraging theattention of intellectuals and activists about the domination of men againstwomen which promotes the existence of human rights violations based on gender.
In the spirit of liberation of that injustice,finally, feminism becomes a warmly discussed discourse. The feminist movementseeks to challenge the various forms of gender stereotypes that are widespreadin society as an effort to restore the dignity, freedom, and equality of womenas fully human beings. This spirit of feminism put forward the variousdiscourses of justice and egalitarianism in fighting for the welfare of lifeand justice for women like this, which among others has opened the humanconsciousness to feel concerned about the occurrence of violence against women.
There are at least three schools of Feminism thatare often the world’s attention because of their views and opinions,1. Liberalfeminism, which assumes that all human beings are created in balance and inharmony, should avoid oppression between each other and require that women befully integrated into all roles included in the public domain2. Feminism Marxism-Socialist,seeking to remove class structures in society by sex. The feminists in thisschool view that capitalism should be abolished because according to them thenature and function of women’s work under capitalism is the undermining ofwomen’s work.33. Radical feminismsued all institutions which is considered harmful to women.
Even among radicalfeminists there demands not only equal rights with men but also the equality ofsexual satisfaction, thus justifying the lesbian. For the radical feminist movement, resolutions takeplace in every woman who has taken action to change their own lifestyle,experience, and relationship with men.4 d. The Development and Gender Equality in IndonesiaGender differences can sometimes lead to injusticeagainst men and especially women. Gender inequality can manifest in variousforms of injustice, namely: 1. Marginalization of WomenMarginalizationof women (removal or impoverishment) often occurs in the surroundingenvironment. It appears that many women workers are marginalized and becomepoor due to development programs such as women are marginalized from varioustypes of agricultural and industrial activities that require more skills thatare more commonly owned by men. With this, a lot of men who think that womenonly have duties around the house only.
2. SubordinationSubordinationhas the meaning that the belief that one sex is considered more important thanthe other sex. There has always been a view that places the status and role ofwomen lower than men. One example is that women are considered weak creatures,so often men seem to be more powerful. Sometimes men think that the scope ofwomen’s work is only around the house.
With such a view, then it is just aswell as not giving women to appreciate their thoughts outside the home. 3. Stereotype ViewOne of thestereotypes that develop based on gender, which occurs against one sex,(female). This results in discrimination and injustice that disadvantageswomen. For example, the view of women whose duties and functions only carry outwork related to domestic work. This not only happens within the household butalso occurs in the workplace and community, even at the government and statelevel.Standards of values ??for the behavior of women andmen are different, but they are judgmental and harmful to women. Women’s labelas “housewives” is disadvantageous, if they are active in “men’sactivities” such as politics, business or bureaucrats.
While the male labelas the main breadwinner resulted in anything that produced by women regarded asa sideline or additionally and tended not to be taken into account.Gender equality in Indonesia is still within thecontext of the protection of labor rights and equal pay, it seems that we needto look back at the role of the government towards foreign exchange earners,especially women. They are the party that has the smallest votes to be heard bythe government or law enforcement because its position does not seem to havethe same right to be fully protected by the state.We should see another country, for example, Icelandwho becomes the first country to legalize equal pay between men and women. Underthe new rules, companies and government agencies employing at least 25 peoplewill have to obtain government certification of their equal-pay policies.According to Dagny Osk Aradottir Pind, a boardmember of the Icelandic Women’s Rights Association (2018) “The legislationis basically a mechanism that companies and organisations evaluate every job that’s being done, and thenthey get a certification after they confirm the process if they are paying menand women equally,” said Dagny Osk Aradottir Pind, a board member of theIcelandic Women’s Rights Association.
It’s a mechanism to ensure women and menare being paid equally. We have had legislation saying that pay should be equalfor men and women for decades now but we still have a pay gap.”5Although in Indonesia has experienced enough GenderEquality developments such as the number of career women, and women whoreceived education to bachelor until doctor, but compare with other countries,Indonesia’s gender equality development still left behind. e. Gender Equality from Pancasila PerspectiveSubconscious acceptance of Pancasila from the societycan be seen from the reaction of society to the case of formalization effortsof Islam in Indonesia. Pancasila is used for arguments against Islamicregulations but the issue of discrimination against women is rarely used as abasis for rejection. Some Pancasila ideologists have even stated that Pancasilahas no Pancasila link with gender issues.
While Sukarno, the initiator ofPancasila, explicitly integrates the perspective of gender equality into thedescription of Pancasila. While giving a public lecture about Pancasila onJuly 22, 1958, at the State Palace, according to Soekarno (1958) “The issue ofwomen and men was mainly extracted from sila2 of Pancasila ‘Peri kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab’. Nevertheless, everytime Sukarno reminds that the precepts in Pancasila are imbued with each other,in fact, the issue of women is in every sila. Clearly, in the political system of representative democracy (sila 4) orreligious life (Sila 1) the issue of gender equality animates the two precepts.” MPR RI’s member, Eva Kusuma Sundari also socializedthe four pillars with the theme of Pancasila and gender equality in Surabaya.Eva said that Pancasila’s position as an ideology should be able to show itsposition on crucial issues. Includes gender issues.
6 Two sources that can be used as a reference areSarinah Book written on 1947 and public lecture Seokarno on Pancasila BasicState in the State Palace. Speech of Seokarno on July 22, 1958 it contentsdissect the meaning of the second precepts, namely Perikemanusiaan yang Adildan Berbadab. From the book Sarinah, Soekarno likens the positionof women and men like two wings from a bird. Both must be strong so that thebird can fly high. Women’s inhibitors to be equal are mentioned to be rooted intwo things.7 That is the system of feudalism and the division oflabor system (division of labor) world that is not fair for the interests ofneo-colonialism. Men and women must work together to undermine the two unjustsystems. Gender equality is also described in a public lectureat the State Palace, by unraveling the symbols of the country.
Bendera Merah Putih is not just a braveand sacred meaning. But it also means women and men. Red links with sun and moon whose role is importantfor agrarian society. The red sun represents the female blood. While the whiteof the moon is the color of male’s semen. The symbol of gender equality also exists in GarudaPancasila, especially the second precepts, round and square chains arecontinuous and not broken. CHAPTERIII Final1 Fakih, M (2006) Analisis Gender & Transformasi Sosial.
Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar Offset2 Eurostat (n.d) What is Gender Equality?Retrieved from http://www.genderequality.ie/en/GE/Pages/WhatisGE3 Tong, Rosemarie (1989) Feminist Thought: Westview Press4 Stanley,L.
& Wise, S. (1983) Breaking Out:Feminist Consciousness and Feminist Research: Routledge & Kegan PaulBooks5 Al-Jazera (2018) Iceland Becomes First Countryto Legalise Equal Pay Retrieved from http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/01/iceland-country-legalise-equal-pay-180101150054329.htmlhttp://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/01/iceland-country-legalise-equal-pay-180101150054329.html6 Jurnal Indonesia (2016) Pancasiladan Kesetaraan Gender Retrieved from https://www.jurnalindonesia.net/pancasila-dan-kesetaraan-gender/7 Soekarno (1947) Sarinah: Kewajiban Wanita Dalam Perjuangan Republik Indonesia, Jakarta:Toko Gunung Agung