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B The Research
Summary / English

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Recently the most
widely businesses with perhaps large numbers of
workers are interested in running restaurants; however, the toxic compounds
from cooking smoke most exposed by the restaurant cookers may place them at
high risk. This fact is often overlooked. 

Research Problem:
Cooking fumes in restaurants could have a relation with the
respiratory symptoms e.g. (Cough, phlegm, dyspnea, stuffy nose,
wheezing) among restaurants workers at
Eastern Province in kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Research Aim and Data Collection:
The primary aim of the study is to identify the relation
between cooking fumes inhalation and respiratory symptoms. Data will be collected through a (MRC 1986)
questionnaire survey to assess the respiratory symptoms among restaurants
workers. Then the data will be analyzed using Statistical Package of Social
Science software. It is noteworthy to mention that this study is the first at
Eastern Province that determines the occurrence of
the respiratory symptoms among restaurant workers.
Research Questions:
The following
questions will be addressed in this study:
Q1-Is they an association between cooking fumes exposure and respiratory symptoms among
restaurant workers on Eastern Province in KSA?
Q2-What is the respiratory symptoms that
include (cough, phlegm, dyspnea,
stuffy nose, wheeze) and that
restaurant workers mostly suffer at Eastern Province
in KSA?
Null Hypotheses:
There will be no association between cooking fumes exposure and
respiratory symptoms among restaurant workers.
Key words: restaurants, restaurants workers,
cooking fumes, respiratory symptoms, cough, phlegm, dyspnea, stuffy nose, wheezing, Eastern Province.

C The
Literature Survey  (
The historical progress to the subject proposed research with focusing on the
recent resources and the published researches)

Fumes are considered as
environmental pollutant. A question to ask is: Are cooking fumes as fuels
from frying, roasting, braising, and grilling considered as a source of
pulmonary complications in cookers?
Numerous studies have been
conducted to examine the impact of cooking fumes, and they have shown
negative results.
“A case study was conducted,
India and it’s examine the indoor air quality due to different kitchen fuels
and its impact on human respiratory. In this investigation, the questionnaire
survey ATS-DLD, 1978 was used for evaluating the occupational perspectives
and effects of air pollution on human respiratory system on 240 subjects (125
cooks effected group, 115 non-cooks control group). The outcomes demonstrated
that higher pervasiveness of cough, dyspnea has been found in cooks higher
than the non-cooks. Predominance of mucus and wheezing are relatively
comparable. It is obvious in this investigation that there is large
distinction in lung function parameters of cooks and non-cooks.” (2014,
MNIT, in Jaipur).
“Another study was done to
study the respiratory health effects due to use of solid bio fuels in rural
areas. Questionnaire (ATS-DLD, 1978) was used on 184 subjects (90 female
cooks, 94 non-cooks). The investigation demonstrated that the frequency of
cough in the age group of (25-40) has the highest value. The frequency of
wheezing, cough, mucus, and dyspnea is more among cooks in all ages compared
to non-cooks. However, the predominance of mucus in 40 years non-cooks higher
outcomes than cooks.” (Rajasthan, 2013, international journals of Civil
“A cross-sectional study
examined the effects of cooking fuels smoke on respiratory symptoms and lung
function in semi-rural women. In this study, they analyzed forced respiratory
volume between ladies utilizing wood (n=145) and ladies’ alternative sources
of energy (n=155) for cooking. The outcomes demonstrated that respiratory
symptoms and diminished lung function are more articulated among subjects
utilizing wood as cooking fuel.” (Cameroon, 2015, International Journal
of Occupational and Environmental Health).
“Another study was conducted
in Maputo, and it investigated the impacts of cooking fuel smoke and
respiratory symptoms among women in low-income Very nearly 1200 randomly
chosen ladies dwelling in suburbia of Maputo were interviewed and 218 were
observed for air contamination. The consequence of the investigation
uncovered that wood clients were found to have fundamentally more cough than
different groups. Other respiratory symptoms, for example, dyspnea, wheezing,
inhalation, and exhalation difficulties were observed not to be related with
wood utilize.” (Sweden, 1996, University of Goteborg, Department for
Human Ecology, Goteborg,).
“Cooking smoke and
respiratory symptoms of restaurants workers were examined in study. Cross
sectional survey of 224 workers from 142 food restaurants was done. The
results showed that twice or more the prevalence of most chronic health
symptoms in intervention group to control group restaurant workers. Male had
a higher hazard for dyspnea, stuffy nose, and wheeze while female had higher
hazard of cough.” (Thailand, 2017).
“A study of the respiratory
symptoms and lung function patterns in workers exposed to wood smoke and
cooking oil fumes. They utilized questionnaire and it contained a few things
from the Medical Research Council (MRC). They selected all continuous and
consenting workers who were occupied with the work at the time and who were
not incapacitated at all. The outcomes demonstrated that these worker have
expanded recurrence of respiratory symptoms contrasted to control. Event of
respiratory symptoms particularly chest tightness and dyspnea were common
among the individuals who have put in 6-10 years at work contrasted to wheeze
which was available in those with 10 years and more at work.” (Nigeria,
2013, Mai Suya, Ann Med Health Sci Res).
“A study
examined the respiratory symptoms in kitchen workers. They enlisted
representatives at 67 chose kitchens and they requested to answer an
individual survey in regards incidence of dyspnea, serious dyspnea, cough,
and respiratory symptoms regarding work. The investigation group comprised of
139 female and 100 male. The consequences of the examination demonstrated a
connection between working in kitchens and respiratory symptoms.” (2003,
American journal of industrial medicine).
study examined the respiratory symptoms of vendors in an open-air hawker
center. They used a cross-sectional study among 67 food vendors presented to
cooking fumes and 18 stock vendors. Past medical and smoking history and
introduction to cooking fumes were gotten. The approved American Thoracic
Society Questionnaire with a translated Malay version was utilized to request
respiratory symptoms. The outcomes for this examination proposed that cooking
sellers in the open-air hawker center presented to cooking fumes had more
respiratory symptoms contrasted with non-uncovered stock vendors. The sort of
fuel utilized for cooking and duration of work was related with expanded
predominance of cough.” (Brunei Darussalam, 2014, frontiersin in public
“A meta-analysis study
explored the association between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer
among Chinese nonsmoking women. They included thirteen articles containing
three population-based case–control and ten hospital-based case–control
studies. The outcomes insisted that cooking oil fume exposure, particularly
inadequate with regards to a fume extractor, may increase the hazards of lung
risk among Chinese nonsmoking females.” (Chins, 2016, press journal, Onco
target and therapy).
“A similar study
investigated the fumes from meat cooking and its association with lung cancer
risk in Chinese women. They conducted a case-control study of 303 Chinese
women with pathologically confirmed, primary carcinomas of the lung and 765
controls to inspect the relationship between introduction to meat cooking and
lung cancer hazard. Information on demographic background, smoking status,
and residential cooking introduction, including mix browning of meat, were
gotten by face to face meet while in hospital. The aftereffects of this
investigation exhibited that inhalation of carcinogens, for example,
heterocyclic amines created amid fricasseeing of meat, may expand the danger
of lung disease among smokers.” (2000).
“A study that assessed the impact of indoor air quality
on respiratory health was conducted. They assessed the short and long-term
morbidities to general respiratory symptoms through a properly designed
questionnaire (ATS-DLD -1978). It was utilized for doing health survey to
evaluate the effect of IAP on respiratory system, measuring lung function
parameters to show the short and long-term impacts of exposure. The
consequences of this examination demonstrated that cooking rehearses and
deficient ventilation cooperate to increase centralizations of pollutants in
the indoor air. The uncovered people experienced expanded respiratory issue
because of prolonged exposure and high concentrations of pollutants.”
(2017, Journal of Energy and Environmental Sustainability).
“Short term exposure to
cooking fumes and pulmonary function was examined in a study. They utilized
two groups of 12 healthy participants (A and B) remained in a model kitchen
for two and four hours individually, and were observed with spirometry four
times for twenty-four hours, on one event with no exposure, and controlled
levels of cooking fume was exposed to the other group. The outcomes
demonstrated that there was minor short term spirometric impacts, essentially
influencing FET.” (2009, Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology).
“A cross- sectional study
examined the exposure to cooking fumes and acute reversible decrement in lung
functional capacity. In this study, 60 kitchen workers that inhaled the
cooking vapor and 60 unexposed participants were enlisted. The predominance
of respiratory symptoms among these groups was resolved through finishing of
a standard survey. Pulmonary function parameters were likewise measured
before and after employees’ work shift. Also, air samples were gathered and
analyzed to evaluate their aldehyde, molecule, and unstable natural
substance. They reasoned that inhalation of cooking vapor is related with a
critical elevation in the spread of respiratory symptoms and in addition
acute reversible decrease in lung functional capacity.” (2017, international
journal of occupational and environmental medicine). 
“A study that
examined the exposure to cooking fumes in restaurant kitchens was conducted.
Estimations were made in four lodging kitchens, two ground sirloin sandwich
chain eateries, 10 individually eateries and three little neighborhood
eateries serving for the most part seared sustenance. The estimations were
executed as individual estimations and every individual conveyed two
examining devices associated with pumps. The estimations were repeated on 3
days in every kitchen. Factors which could impact the level of exposure were
recorded by the occupational hygienist. The outcome presumed that cooking
fumes thought to be viewed as hurtful to the lungs.” (The occupational
hygienist, Norway, 2001).
cooking, respiratory and allergic outcomes was measured birth cohort study in
the PIAMA. The counteractive action and rate of asthma and mite allergy birth
cohort study followed children from birth (1996/1997) until age 8. Annual
survey was utilized to archive respiratory and allergic symptoms. Allergic
sensitization and bronchial hyper responsiveness (BHR) were measured at age 8
in sub populations. A sum of 3590 youngsters were incorporated into the
present examination. They utilized generalized estimating equations and
discrete-time hazard models to contemplate the in general and age-particular
relationship between inhalation of cooking gases and the danger of creating
respiratory diseases. Their discoveries gave little proof to an antagonistic
impact of inhalation of gas cooking on the advancement of asthma and
sensitivities.” (2013, Lin W, et al. Occup
Environ Med).
 Cooking fumes is a topic that has been
thoroughly studied. However further studies of the impacts of cooking fumes
well lead to better understanding. Reviewing the literature leads back to the
question: Is there a relation of exposure to cooking
fumes on respiratory symptoms among restaurant
workers at Eastern Province in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia?


The objectives are
to examine if there is a relation between cooking fumes
exposure and respiratory symptoms among restaurant
workers at Eastern Province in Kingdom of Saudi
Arabia. Moreover, a questionnaire form (MRC 1986) will be used
to identify the effects of cooking
fumes inhalation in
relation to respiratory symptoms. In addition, the (MRC 1986) questionnaire
tools will be explained to determine the most respiratory symptoms that
include (cough, phlegm, dyspnea, stuffy
nose, wheeze) that restaurant workers suffer from at Eastern

Results ( Results and accomplishments that accepted to get
it )

Null hypotheses will be rejected because the toxic compounds that
found in cooking smoke affect negatively on cook workers’ respiratory systems
based on the results of previous studies.

FThe Relation of
The Research Subject to The Researchers Major

The research involves assessment of
respiratory symptoms which is mainly related to the field of respiratory
care. In addition, enhancing the awareness of restaurant workers about
hazardous pollutant they are exposed to was thought to be valuable by the
research team.

GMaterials and Methods
Write the work way with details including the samples size, statistics, and
any other important stuff to achieve the research objects)

A sample of approximately
100 participants (aged 18-45) years old will be recruited from a group of the
male cookers currently working in different types of restaurants with
different sorts of dishes, Participants will be freely volunteer to
participate. Face-to-face interviews will be conducted with workers in
Subjects exclusion criteria:
We will exclude any
participant who are considered as smokers or have any chronic respiratory
Observational cross-sectional descriptive
study will be conducted. We will intend to survey 100 cookers from different
restaurants in the eastern province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabi. In February
2018, different restaurants from 4 districts (Alhasa, Sihat, Qatif, Dammam and Al Khobar)
will be randomly selected. Data will be collected through a (MRC 1986)
questionnaire survey to assess the respiratory symptoms including (cough,
phlegm, dyspnea, stuffy nose, wheezing) among restaurants workers. Some
modifications to this questionnaire will be done to adapt the environment and
population. A constructed questionnaire will be used to collect demographic
data, including type of job, exposure time in the kitchen, the
type of restaurant, the size of the kitchen, and the ventilation condition. Potential participants will administer and
complete the questionnaire themselves after
obtaining verbal consent from them. The questionnaire will take short time to be
completed and the researchers will be present for each participant to give verbal instructions about questionnaires to ensure they
understand the purpose of the study.
Data Analysis Procedure
approach represented in observational
cross-sectional descriptive study will be conducted. SPSS software will be employed in performing the following
statistical analysis:
1. Descriptive statistics will be
used to assess the respiratory symptoms of work-related health issues among
restaurant workers at Eastern Province in kingdom
of Saudi Arabia.
2. Correlation analysis will
be used to examine the association
between cooking fumes exposure and respiratory symptoms among restaurant


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