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??????? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? (??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????) ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????. ?????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ?????. ??? ???????? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ???? (SPSS).

????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????. ??????? ????????: ???????? ????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????. B The Research Summary / English Introduction: Recently the most widely businesses with perhaps large numbers of workers are interested in running restaurants; however, the toxic compounds from cooking smoke most exposed by the restaurant cookers may place them at high risk. This fact is often overlooked.    Research Problem: Cooking fumes in restaurants could have a relation with the respiratory symptoms e.

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g. (Cough, phlegm, dyspnea, stuffy nose, wheezing) among restaurants workers at Eastern Province in kingdom of Saudi Arabia.   Research Aim and Data Collection:   The primary aim of the study is to identify the relation between cooking fumes inhalation and respiratory symptoms. Data will be collected through a (MRC 1986) questionnaire survey to assess the respiratory symptoms among restaurants workers. Then the data will be analyzed using Statistical Package of Social Science software. It is noteworthy to mention that this study is the first at Eastern Province that determines the occurrence of the respiratory symptoms among restaurant workers.   Research Questions: The following questions will be addressed in this study: Q1-Is they an association between cooking fumes exposure and respiratory symptoms among restaurant workers on Eastern Province in KSA? Q2-What is the respiratory symptoms that include (cough, phlegm, dyspnea, stuffy nose, wheeze) and that restaurant workers mostly suffer at Eastern Province in KSA?   Null Hypotheses: There will be no association between cooking fumes exposure and respiratory symptoms among restaurant workers.

  Key words: restaurants, restaurants workers, cooking fumes, respiratory symptoms, cough, phlegm, dyspnea, stuffy nose, wheezing, Eastern Province.     C The Literature Survey  ( The historical progress to the subject proposed research with focusing on the recent resources and the published researches)   Fumes are considered as environmental pollutant. A question to ask is: Are cooking fumes as fuels from frying, roasting, braising, and grilling considered as a source of pulmonary complications in cookers? Numerous studies have been conducted to examine the impact of cooking fumes, and they have shown negative results.   “A case study was conducted, India and it’s examine the indoor air quality due to different kitchen fuels and its impact on human respiratory. In this investigation, the questionnaire survey ATS-DLD, 1978 was used for evaluating the occupational perspectives and effects of air pollution on human respiratory system on 240 subjects (125 cooks effected group, 115 non-cooks control group). The outcomes demonstrated that higher pervasiveness of cough, dyspnea has been found in cooks higher than the non-cooks.

Predominance of mucus and wheezing are relatively comparable. It is obvious in this investigation that there is large distinction in lung function parameters of cooks and non-cooks.” (2014, MNIT, in Jaipur).   “Another study was done to study the respiratory health effects due to use of solid bio fuels in rural areas. Questionnaire (ATS-DLD, 1978) was used on 184 subjects (90 female cooks, 94 non-cooks). The investigation demonstrated that the frequency of cough in the age group of (25-40) has the highest value. The frequency of wheezing, cough, mucus, and dyspnea is more among cooks in all ages compared to non-cooks.

However, the predominance of mucus in 40 years non-cooks higher outcomes than cooks.” (Rajasthan, 2013, international journals of Civil engineering).   “A cross-sectional study examined the effects of cooking fuels smoke on respiratory symptoms and lung function in semi-rural women. In this study, they analyzed forced respiratory volume between ladies utilizing wood (n=145) and ladies’ alternative sources of energy (n=155) for cooking.

The outcomes demonstrated that respiratory symptoms and diminished lung function are more articulated among subjects utilizing wood as cooking fuel.” (Cameroon, 2015, International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health).   “Another study was conducted in Maputo, and it investigated the impacts of cooking fuel smoke and respiratory symptoms among women in low-income Very nearly 1200 randomly chosen ladies dwelling in suburbia of Maputo were interviewed and 218 were observed for air contamination. The consequence of the investigation uncovered that wood clients were found to have fundamentally more cough than different groups. Other respiratory symptoms, for example, dyspnea, wheezing, inhalation, and exhalation difficulties were observed not to be related with wood utilize.” (Sweden, 1996, University of Goteborg, Department for Human Ecology, Goteborg,).   “Cooking smoke and respiratory symptoms of restaurants workers were examined in study. Cross sectional survey of 224 workers from 142 food restaurants was done.

The results showed that twice or more the prevalence of most chronic health symptoms in intervention group to control group restaurant workers. Male had a higher hazard for dyspnea, stuffy nose, and wheeze while female had higher hazard of cough.” (Thailand, 2017).   “A study of the respiratory symptoms and lung function patterns in workers exposed to wood smoke and cooking oil fumes. They utilized questionnaire and it contained a few things from the Medical Research Council (MRC).

They selected all continuous and consenting workers who were occupied with the work at the time and who were not incapacitated at all. The outcomes demonstrated that these worker have expanded recurrence of respiratory symptoms contrasted to control. Event of respiratory symptoms particularly chest tightness and dyspnea were common among the individuals who have put in 6-10 years at work contrasted to wheeze which was available in those with 10 years and more at work.

” (Nigeria, 2013, Mai Suya, Ann Med Health Sci Res).   “A study examined the respiratory symptoms in kitchen workers. They enlisted representatives at 67 chose kitchens and they requested to answer an individual survey in regards incidence of dyspnea, serious dyspnea, cough, and respiratory symptoms regarding work. The investigation group comprised of 139 female and 100 male.

The consequences of the examination demonstrated a connection between working in kitchens and respiratory symptoms.” (2003, American journal of industrial medicine).   “Another study examined the respiratory symptoms of vendors in an open-air hawker center. They used a cross-sectional study among 67 food vendors presented to cooking fumes and 18 stock vendors. Past medical and smoking history and introduction to cooking fumes were gotten.

The approved American Thoracic Society Questionnaire with a translated Malay version was utilized to request respiratory symptoms. The outcomes for this examination proposed that cooking sellers in the open-air hawker center presented to cooking fumes had more respiratory symptoms contrasted with non-uncovered stock vendors. The sort of fuel utilized for cooking and duration of work was related with expanded predominance of cough.” (Brunei Darussalam, 2014, frontiersin in public health).   “A meta-analysis study explored the association between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. They included thirteen articles containing three population-based case–control and ten hospital-based case–control studies. The outcomes insisted that cooking oil fume exposure, particularly inadequate with regards to a fume extractor, may increase the hazards of lung risk among Chinese nonsmoking females.” (Chins, 2016, press journal, Onco target and therapy).

  “A similar study investigated the fumes from meat cooking and its association with lung cancer risk in Chinese women. They conducted a case-control study of 303 Chinese women with pathologically confirmed, primary carcinomas of the lung and 765 controls to inspect the relationship between introduction to meat cooking and lung cancer hazard. Information on demographic background, smoking status, and residential cooking introduction, including mix browning of meat, were gotten by face to face meet while in hospital.

The aftereffects of this investigation exhibited that inhalation of carcinogens, for example, heterocyclic amines created amid fricasseeing of meat, may expand the danger of lung disease among smokers.” (2000).   “A study that assessed the impact of indoor air quality on respiratory health was conducted. They assessed the short and long-term morbidities to general respiratory symptoms through a properly designed questionnaire (ATS-DLD -1978). It was utilized for doing health survey to evaluate the effect of IAP on respiratory system, measuring lung function parameters to show the short and long-term impacts of exposure. The consequences of this examination demonstrated that cooking rehearses and deficient ventilation cooperate to increase centralizations of pollutants in the indoor air. The uncovered people experienced expanded respiratory issue because of prolonged exposure and high concentrations of pollutants.

” (2017, Journal of Energy and Environmental Sustainability).   “Short term exposure to cooking fumes and pulmonary function was examined in a study. They utilized two groups of 12 healthy participants (A and B) remained in a model kitchen for two and four hours individually, and were observed with spirometry four times for twenty-four hours, on one event with no exposure, and controlled levels of cooking fume was exposed to the other group.

The outcomes demonstrated that there was minor short term spirometric impacts, essentially influencing FET.” (2009, Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology).   “A cross- sectional study examined the exposure to cooking fumes and acute reversible decrement in lung functional capacity.

In this study, 60 kitchen workers that inhaled the cooking vapor and 60 unexposed participants were enlisted. The predominance of respiratory symptoms among these groups was resolved through finishing of a standard survey. Pulmonary function parameters were likewise measured before and after employees’ work shift. Also, air samples were gathered and analyzed to evaluate their aldehyde, molecule, and unstable natural substance.

They reasoned that inhalation of cooking vapor is related with a critical elevation in the spread of respiratory symptoms and in addition acute reversible decrease in lung functional capacity.” (2017, international journal of occupational and environmental medicine).    “A study that examined the exposure to cooking fumes in restaurant kitchens was conducted. Estimations were made in four lodging kitchens, two ground sirloin sandwich chain eateries, 10 individually eateries and three little neighborhood eateries serving for the most part seared sustenance.

The estimations were executed as individual estimations and every individual conveyed two examining devices associated with pumps. The estimations were repeated on 3 days in every kitchen. Factors which could impact the level of exposure were recorded by the occupational hygienist. The outcome presumed that cooking fumes thought to be viewed as hurtful to the lungs.” (The occupational hygienist, Norway, 2001).   “Gas cooking, respiratory and allergic outcomes was measured birth cohort study in the PIAMA. The counteractive action and rate of asthma and mite allergy birth cohort study followed children from birth (1996/1997) until age 8. Annual survey was utilized to archive respiratory and allergic symptoms.

Allergic sensitization and bronchial hyper responsiveness (BHR) were measured at age 8 in sub populations. A sum of 3590 youngsters were incorporated into the present examination. They utilized generalized estimating equations and discrete-time hazard models to contemplate the in general and age-particular relationship between inhalation of cooking gases and the danger of creating respiratory diseases. Their discoveries gave little proof to an antagonistic impact of inhalation of gas cooking on the advancement of asthma and sensitivities.” (2013, Lin W, et al. Occup Environ Med).    Cooking fumes is a topic that has been thoroughly studied.

However further studies of the impacts of cooking fumes well lead to better understanding. Reviewing the literature leads back to the question: Is there a relation of exposure to cooking fumes on respiratory symptoms among restaurant workers at Eastern Province in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia? DObjectives The objectives are to examine if there is a relation between cooking fumes exposure and respiratory symptoms among restaurant workers at Eastern Province in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Moreover, a questionnaire form (MRC 1986) will be used to identify the effects of cooking fumes inhalation in relation to respiratory symptoms. In addition, the (MRC 1986) questionnaire tools will be explained to determine the most respiratory symptoms that include (cough, phlegm, dyspnea, stuffy nose, wheeze) that restaurant workers suffer from at Eastern Province.   EExpected Results ( Results and accomplishments that accepted to get it )   Null hypotheses will be rejected because the toxic compounds that found in cooking smoke affect negatively on cook workers’ respiratory systems based on the results of previous studies.   FThe Relation of The Research Subject to The Researchers Major   The research involves assessment of respiratory symptoms which is mainly related to the field of respiratory care. In addition, enhancing the awareness of restaurant workers about hazardous pollutant they are exposed to was thought to be valuable by the research team. GMaterials and Methods ( Write the work way with details including the samples size, statistics, and any other important stuff to achieve the research objects) Participants A sample of approximately 100 participants (aged 18-45) years old will be recruited from a group of the male cookers currently working in different types of restaurants with different sorts of dishes, Participants will be freely volunteer to participate.

Face-to-face interviews will be conducted with workers in restaurants.   Subjects exclusion criteria: We will exclude any participant who are considered as smokers or have any chronic respiratory disease.     Method: Observational cross-sectional descriptive study will be conducted. We will intend to survey 100 cookers from different restaurants in the eastern province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabi. In February 2018, different restaurants from 4 districts (Alhasa, Sihat, Qatif, Dammam and Al Khobar) will be randomly selected. Data will be collected through a (MRC 1986) questionnaire survey to assess the respiratory symptoms including (cough, phlegm, dyspnea, stuffy nose, wheezing) among restaurants workers.

Some modifications to this questionnaire will be done to adapt the environment and population. A constructed questionnaire will be used to collect demographic data, including type of job, exposure time in the kitchen, the type of restaurant, the size of the kitchen, and the ventilation condition. Potential participants will administer and complete the questionnaire themselves after obtaining verbal consent from them. The questionnaire will take short time to be completed and the researchers will be present for each participant to give verbal instructions about questionnaires to ensure they understand the purpose of the study.

      Data Analysis Procedure Quantitative approach represented in observational cross-sectional descriptive study will be conducted. SPSS software will be employed in performing the following statistical analysis:   1. Descriptive statistics will be used to assess the respiratory symptoms of work-related health issues among restaurant workers at Eastern Province in kingdom of Saudi Arabia.   2.

Correlation analysis will be used to examine the association between cooking fumes exposure and respiratory symptoms among restaurant workers.       


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