2.2.4. competence level. Competence in use of new

2.2.4. Competence

is the technical skill to carry out a task to the required standards as a
result of training (Kyjaková et al., 2014). To promote success of construction
project competence of the workforce and quality of work needs to be focused on
in both the short term and long term aspects of the project (Ferrada et al.,
2013). With new emerging building technology such as ACM; there is need to
conform the present work force to the changes effect. The aim of technology is
to get the best quality results at the cheapest price possible without
compromising the quality of the end construction product (Kyjaková et al.,

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has shown that people are more willing to adopt new technology when the new
innovation is of better advantage than the existing technology; less complex
thus easier to use and high chances of trying out the new technology before
adoption (Michalisin, 2013). Reluctance to adopt new technology due to failure
to address the 3 aspects may proof costly in the long run operation of the
organization as the efficiency and effectiveness levels are greatly hampered (Michalisin,
2013). It is thus imperative to address the user challenges of new innovations
that speaks to their competence level. Competence in use of new technology is greatly
improved through trying out the new technology in different scenarios to
identify its pros over existing technology (Michalisin, 2013).

technology achieves the desire impact when it is widely used and adopted by the
target user. Adoption is a byproduct of individual use of the technology based
on their skill set that enables a comparison of the new technology vs the old
technology (Hall and Khan, 2003). In addition, the individual user will do a
cost benefit analysis of the new technology before advocating for its use and choosing
the preference of the new technology over the old technology (Hall and Khan,
2003). New innovation is considered and of benefits when individuals are well
schooled via training on how to utilize the technology (Mwambia, 2015). More so
the user competence is exhibited through personal learning initiatives and
organizational support on deciphering the sophistication of the new technology
and how to use the new technology (Mwambia, 2015).

competence is a long term acquired skill; ACM adoption is influenced by the
skill set of the available workforce. For ACM; onsite training has been
advocated for especially in aspects such as pre fab technology. This is because
the skill can be acquired on site to empower the community at large in benefiting
from future construction projects. Formal training is limited to specialist
like structural engineers and quantity surveyors (Kyjaková et al., 2014). Time
is treated as a cost factor in construction, thus due to time constraint in
construction contractors are not inclined to research on ACM as an alternative
to promoting low cost houses. This is coupled by the fact that there is no
active participation in research, developing and consideration of the use of
ACM as a key option in construction (Arief et al., 2002).

across the globe there is a huge demand for houses that necessitates the use of
locally available construction materials to cater for the demand whilst
reducing the environmental impact (Bredenoord, 2017). Various ACM are used in
various varying climatic conditions with the general rule of thumb being that
there is exchange of the technology skill set with the local community through
trainings and education forums (Bredenoord, 2017). This allows the sustainability
of the various ACM since the communities are empowered to process the constructions
end to end (Kyjaková et al., 2014).

There requires a joint effort of all stake
holders to further empower society with the competence levels needed to facilitate
home construction and improvements (Bredenoord, 2017). Society in this context
refers to individual, institutions, communities, Saccos and Non-Government
Organization. Thus ACM offers self-help and reliance to the utilizing communities
with reference to construction of affordable housing (Bredenoord, 2017). Local communities
in various societies generally have construction techniques linked to the
available material in the environment. Through influence of technology and urbanization
traditional building methods have been modernized to use of new materials such
as steel; brick and mortar and glass (Bredenoord, 2017). The new technology has
resulted in revolution of traditional construction whose introduction has had
an impact on the overall choice of preference of construction material by

Kenya there has been an increase in cases of collapsed buildings especially in
low to middle income houses like Huruma and Pipeline. This is largely due to
the shoddy job by contractors that either lack the technical skill set to
handle such projects or the use of poor quality material. Poor approval
procedures and decision making in the aim of maximizing their profits are
increasingly becoming costly (LearningEnglish, 2015).


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