Hannah G. Lund, B.A.a,
Brian D. Reider, B.A.b, Annie B. Whiting, R.N.c, and J.
Roxanne Prichard, Ph.Db,* (2009). Sleep and Distress: examining
sleeping patterns and causes of disturbed sleep in college students. Department of Psychology & Massachusetts
General Hospital. Received: 26.03.2009.
of sleep patterns and disturbed sleep in the college students population.
3. It was
a correlational study.
variables involved were: sleep patterns, physical and mental health, study
& mood disturbance.
variables thought to be predictive are sleep quality, mood and health.
variables thought to be predicted are sleep disturbance and academic stress.
participants were 420 male and 705 females (n= 1,125) students between the age
of 17 and 24 at bigger private university. The mean age was 20 in which
freshmen and sophomores were 27% each, 20% seniors and 24% juniors, out of
total 86% of participants were Caucasian.
Materials used were as follows:(a) the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI)
differentiates between poor and good quality sleepers by measuring seven
different areas, scoring was based on a 0-3 Likert scale. Scores were split
into three categories: optimal (<=5), borderline (6-7) and poor (>=8). The
global score greater than 5 is indicative of poor quality-sleeper and score of
5 or less is indicative of good-quality. (b) the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)
is a questionnaire used identify excessive sleepiness, scores range between 0
to 24 in which score over 10 indicate significant levels of daytime sleepiness.
The online survey also include other three published scales related to sleep,
mood and stress named (c) the Horne-Ostburg Morningness Eveningness Scale
(MES), (d) the Subjective Units of Distress Scale (SUDS), (e) the Profile of
Mood Stage(POMS). In addition to these scales questions related to academic
performance, physical health and psychoactive drug use were also to
e-mail was sent to all the participants and they were asked to complete and
return the survey. Respondents older than 24 were excluded.
sleep was reported in students. Only 40% were categorized as good sleepers by
PSQI; bedtime and risetime got delayed on weekends. Students were taking
prescriptions and drugs to alter sleep/wakefulness. More problems with physical
and psychological health were reported in poor sleepers.