1. B.A.b, Annie B. Whiting, R.N.c, and

1.       Hannah G.

Lund, B.A.a,Brian D.

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Reider, B.A.b, Annie B. Whiting, R.N.c, and J.Roxanne Prichard, Ph.

Db,* (2009). Sleep and Distress: examiningsleeping patterns and causes of disturbed sleep in college students. Department of Psychology & MassachusettsGeneral Hospital. Received: 26.03.2009.2.

    Effectof sleep patterns and disturbed sleep in the college students population.3.    It wasa correlational study.4.    Thevariables involved were: sleep patterns, physical and mental health, study& mood disturbance.5.    Thevariables thought to be predictive are sleep quality, mood and health.

6.    Thevariables thought to be predicted are sleep disturbance and academic stress.7.    Ddfdf8.

    Theparticipants were 420 male and 705 females (n= 1,125) students between the ageof 17 and 24 at bigger private university. The mean age was 20 in whichfreshmen and sophomores were 27% each, 20% seniors and 24% juniors, out oftotal 86% of participants were Caucasian.9.

    TheMaterials used were as follows:(a) the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI)differentiates between poor and good quality sleepers by measuring sevendifferent areas, scoring was based on a 0-3 Likert scale. Scores were splitinto three categories: optimal (<=5), borderline (6-7) and poor (>=8). Theglobal score greater than 5 is indicative of poor quality-sleeper and score of5 or less is indicative of good-quality. (b) the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)is a questionnaire used identify excessive sleepiness, scores range between 0to 24 in which score over 10 indicate significant levels of daytime sleepiness.

The online survey also include other three published scales related to sleep,mood and stress named (c) the Horne-Ostburg Morningness Eveningness Scale(MES), (d) the Subjective Units of Distress Scale (SUDS), (e) the Profile ofMood Stage(POMS). In addition to these scales questions related to academicperformance, physical health and psychoactive drug use were also toparticipants.10. Ane-mail was sent to all the participants and they were asked to complete andreturn the survey.

Respondents older than 24 were excluded.11. Disturbedsleep was reported in students. Only 40% were categorized as good sleepers byPSQI; bedtime and risetime got delayed on weekends. Students were takingprescriptions and drugs to alter sleep/wakefulness. More problems with physicaland psychological health were reported in poor sleepers.


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