1. works as a link. Markup Language


1. HTMLHTMLis used for writing webpages. It’s a scripting language.HTML standsfor Hypertexts Markup Language.

Hypertext is a text that works as a link. Markup Language is a way of writing your layout information in documents or pages.An HTML document is aplain text file that contains text in structured form with an extension .

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htm or.html. When any browser opens an HTML file, Browser looks for HTML codes in thetext files and uses them to change layouts, insert images, or create links to navigateto other pages.Hence HTML tags can be written in any simple text editor.

We can create our pages using some popular HTML editors, such as notepad, notepad++,sublime editor, FrontPage or Dreamweaver. Syntax:Contents to Written hereEg.Paragraph Opens and closes anHTML document to provide information about the document for use primarily by searchengines & browsers   The title of the document All the content of the pages

    Ordered list
    Unordred bulleted list

the main content of the web pages
                       2. CascadingStyle Sheets (CSS)CascadingStyle Sheets (CSS) is the W3C standard for defining the presentation ofdocuments written in HTML, and in fact, any XML language. Presentation, again,refers to the way the document is displayed or delivered to the user, whetheron a computer screen, a cell phone display, printed on paper, or read aloud bya screen reader. With style sheets handling the presentation, HTML can handlethe business of defining document structure and meaning, as intended.

CSS is aseparate language with its own syntax. Syntax of Syntax:·       Everystatement must have a selector and a declaration. The declaration comesimmediately after the selector and is contained in a pair of curly braces.·        The declaration is one or more propertiesseparated by semicolons.·       Eachproperty has a property name followed by a colon and then the value for thatproperty. There are many different types of values, but any given property canonly take certain values as set down in the specification.

·       Sometimes aproperty can take a number of values, as in the font-family. The values in thelist should be separated by a comma and a space. ·       Sometimesa value will have a unit as well as the actual value, as in the 1.3em. We mustnot put a space between the value and its unit.·        As with HTML, white space can be used to makeyour style sheet easier to read and write Use of CSS:·       Betterdownloading speed·       Makesbetter pages accessible·       Reducesthe time spent for maintaining and changing the site·       Multiplestyles will cascade into one              3.

PHPPHP is server side scripting system – PHP stands for”PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor” – Syntax based on Perl, Java, and C –Very good for creating dynamic content – Powerful, but somewhat risky! – If youwant to focus on one system for dynamic content, this is a good one to choose.The Zend FrameworkA PHP Web Framework is acollection of classes which helps to develop a web application. Zend is one ofthe most popular PHP framework. It is an open-source MVC framework forrapidly developing, modern web applications.

Zend Framework has several looselycoupled components, so it is referred to as “Component Library”. Zend Frameworkprovides any PHP stack and Zend server to run Zend framework applications.Zend Studio is an IDEthat includes features to integrate with Zend Framework.

It provides MVC viewand code generation. The current Zend framework 3.0 includes new componentssuch as JSON RPC server, a XML to JSON converter, PSR-7 functionality, andcompatibility with PHP 7.Zend Framework 2 is anopen source framework for developing web applications and services using PHP5.3+. Zend Framework 2 uses 100% object oriented code and utilizes most of thenew features of PHP 5.

3, namely Namespaces, Lambda Functions and Closures.Zend Framework 2 evolvedfrom Zend Framework 1, a successful PHP framework with over 15 milliondownloads. Zend Server has a free community version and a commercial version.Zend Framework FeaturesSome of the salientfeatures of Zend Framework is as follows ? Pure object oriented web application framework Advanced MVC implementation Supports multi databases including PostgreSQL, SQLite etc., Simple cloud API Session management Data encryption Flexible URI Routing Zend provides RESTful API development support. Code reusable and easier to maintain.Why Zend Framework?What makes the ZendFramework one of the premier frameworks used by PHP developers is that – itprovides clean and stable code complete with intellectual property rights.

Italso makes programming easier. It is fast, easy to learn and convenientframework. Zend supports strong cryptography tools and password hashingtechniques.

 .        4. JavaScriptJavaScriptis a widely used web-based programming language that powers the dynamicbehavior on most websites, including this one. In this lesson, you will learnabout data types and built-in methods, essential knowledge for all aspiringJavaScript developers. When you finish, you’ll know how to write programs thatsolve mathematical expressions, compute the length of a word, and generaterandom numbers.

This lesson covers the building blocks of JavaScript. Make sureto take notes and pace yourself. This foundation will set you up forunderstanding more complex concepts later.Syntax Overview:External Scripts:Script can also be loaded from an external file asbelow:Javascript variables: Var myname=”Brijesh Kumar Chaurasiya”; JavaScript Operators and Constructs:Operators and constructs are similar to C.User Interaction:There are three built in methods of doing userinteraction in JavaScript:·       alert(msg)·       confirm(msg)·       prompt(msg,default)JavaScript Events:These are some common events used in javascript-·       onloadand onunload : When a page is first visit or left·       onfocus,onblur,onchange:events pertaining to form elements·       onsubmit:when a form is submitted·       onmouseover,onmouseout: menu effects DOM Document Object Model :It is an essential part to make website moreuser-interactive and through which a programming language can manipulate thecontents, structure and look and feel of a website. JavaScript is a scriptinglanguage that connects to DOM in a web browser.The Document Object:The document object represents theHTML document itself.

It is at the root of the DOM tree. It also provides us witha number of methods for searching for other nodes in the document.Selecting elements:·       Document.getElementById;·       document.getElementsByClassName·       document.getElementsByTagNameDOM ElementContents·       element.

innerHTML: This property represents the HTML within the element·       element.textContent:The plain text within the elementExample:The following code on execution create 4 objects inthe DOMAnd the 4 objects can be accessed as given below:document.getElementById(“paragraph1”);document.getElementByTagname(“html”);document.getElementByTagname(“head”);document.

getElementByTagname(“body”); The JavaScipt eval() Function: The eval() function evaluates or executes an argument.Syntax: eval(string)String- A JavaScript expression, variable statement.   JavaScript closures:JavaScript variable can belong to local or globalscope.

Global variable can made local with closures.e.g. var add=( function() {                   varcounter =0;return function() { return counter+=1}          })();add();add();add();finally the counter value=3 JavaScripts Objects:The following are the objects we use –·       NumberObject:Represent s date, integer, floating pointnumbers,  Browser automatically convertsnumber litrals to instances of the number.

Var val= new Numner(number);·       BooleanObject :Always holds the resultant value TRUE/FALSEVar val=new Boolean(value);·       StringObject:Let’s you work with a series of characters,it wrapsJavascripts string primitive data type with a number of methods.Var val= new String(string);·       ArrayObject:Var fruits= new Array(“apple”, “pineapple”,”guava”,”mango”,”oranges”);·       DateObject:New Date(); JsonJSON or JavaScript Object Notation is a lightweighttext-based open standard designed for human-readable data interchange. The JSONformat was originally specified by Douglas Crock ford, and is described in RFC4627. The official Internet media type for JSON is application/json. The JSONfilename extension is .json. This tutorial will help you understand JSON andits use within various programming languages such as PHP, PERL, Python, Ruby,Java, etc.    5.

    AJAXAsynchronous JavaScript and XML:AJAX is a new technique for creating better, fasterand more interactive web applications with the helpof XML,HTML, CSS andJavaScript. AJAX uses XHTML for content, CSS for presentation, along with DOMand JavaScript for dynamic content to display.           ConventionalWeb applications transmit information to and from the server using synchronousrequests. It means you fail out a form, hit submit and get directed to a newpage with information from the server. With AJAX, when you hit submit,  JavaScript will make a request to the server,interpret the results and update the current screen. In the purest sense, theuser would never know that anything was even submitted to the server.

Benefits of Using AJAX:·       Makingthings fast·       Lookmore user friendly·       Reducingthe load on server jQuery :jQuery is a fast,small and feature rich JavaScriptlibrary. It makes things like HTML document traversal and manipulation, eventhandling, animation and AJAX much simpler with an easy to use API that worksacross a multitude of browsers.Why jQuery?There are lots of other JavaScript frameworks outthere but jQuery seems to be most popular and also the most extensible. Many ofthe IT giant on the web use jQuery like Google, Microsoft, IBM and Netflix.

                  6.    XMLXML is a markup language similar to HTML. It standsfor Extensible Markup Language and is a W3C recommended specification as ageneral purpose markup language. This means, unlike other markup languages, XMLis not predefined so you must define your own tags. The primary purpose of thelanguage is the sharing of data across different systems, such as the Internet. XML extensible Markup Language:XML allows you to create your own self descriptivetags, or language that suits your application. XML carries the data and doesnot present it.

It is a public standard.DTD: A DTD is a description of all the elementsthat are permitted in any document that you make using that DTD. A DTD definesthe elements in the document and contains the set of permissions by which youmay include certain elements within a given document. In a DTD for a simplememo, one would expect titles, paragraphs, and subjects, but not glossaries,tables of contents, numbered lists and the like. A DTD corresponds to the kindof document a reader or user would expect.An XML attribute may be included with element declarations.

XMLAttributes are name/value pairs that may be associated with the element. XMLattributes may be used to control some characteristics of the element. In themarkup document attributes are used with the following form:XML elements require both a beginning tag and an ending tag forall elements that have content. Elements with content may be written as:Very largeOak treeElements with no content may be expressed as:In shorthand it may be expressed as:Elements with no content may be used to display graphics and othermaterial in the document.  Why we use XML?We use it because it offers many advantages to uslike:·       Simplicity·       Extensibility·       Interoperability·       Openness·       Acore of experienced professionalsSessions:A common type ofclient/server session is a Web or HTTP session.

An HTTP session is initiated by a Web browsereach time you visit a website. While each page visitconstitutes an individual session, the term is often used to describe theentire time you spend on the website. For example, when you purchase an item onan ecommerce site, the entireprocess may be described as a session, even though you navigated throughseveral different pages.Another example of a client/server session isan email or SMTP session.  7. XAMPPXAMPP stands for Cross-Platform (X), Apache (A), MySQL(M), PHP (P) and Perl (P). It is a simple, lightweight Apache distribution thatmakes it extremely easy for developers to create a local web server for testingpurposes.

Everything you need to set up a web server – server application(Apache), database (MySQL), and scripting language (PHP) – is included in asimple extractable file. XAMPP is also cross-platform, which means it worksequally well on Linux, Mac and Windows. Since most actual web serverdeployments use the same components as XAMPP, it makes transitioning from alocal test server to a live server is extremely easy as well.        8.

  Web2.0Web 2.0, a phrase is a cluster term for the new phaseof World Wide Web, which was coined by O?Reilly and Media live International in2003 and popularized by the first Web 2.0 conference in 2004.Web 2.

0 CharacteristicsAfter emerging of Web 2.0, it is being vastly usedbecause of its wide range of variety and very attractive features. Descriptivelist of Web 2.0 tools are endless even though we can say that the newgeneration of Internet approximately uses its tools.

Web 2.0 InnovationsAjax, the rich internet application technique hasprompted the development of web-sites that copy personal computer applicationslike (M.S.

Office package) word processing, the spreadsheet, and slide-showpresentation while some wiki sites replicate many features of PC authoringapplications.Web 2.0 ModelBefore the origin of Web 2.0, Web 1.0 was known as aterm ?Web? that was like warehouse of information and static content. Then, astime passes, with the advancement of technology and software, a huge amount ofdata and content became dynamic and returning custom results to users.

The Characteristics and Design of Web 2.0As the Internet world is changing very swiftly, nowthe users look for more than a web site instead of simple text and picturebased website. They want to be more interactive to the world by sharing theirviews; they want to show their talents in terms of their new creation to theglobal world. For fulfilling these necessities, a new concept was born thathave all-in-one technology in itself and it is called Web 2.0.Characteristics of simple Web 2.

0 WebsiteBefore making any Web 2.0 site, the programmers mustkeep in mind the following things, which suits the Web 2.0 technology and thesite runs smoothly on the web.               9.

  EclipseIDEEclipse is an integrateddevelopment environment (IDE) used in computerprogramming, and is the most widely used Java IDE.6 It contains a base workspace and an extensible plug-in system for customizing the environment. Eclipse iswritten mostly in Java and itsprimary use is for developing Java applications, but it may also be used todevelop applications in other programming languages via plug-ins, including Ada, ABAP, C, C++, C#, COBOL, D, Fortran, Haskell, JavaScript.NATURAL, Perl, PHP, Prolog, Python, R, Ruby (including Ruby on Rails framework), Rust, Scala, Clojure, Groovy, Scheme, and Erlang. It canalso be used to develop documents with LaTeX (viaa TeXlipse plug-in) and packages for the software Mathematica.

Development environments include the Eclipse Javadevelopment tools (JDT) for Java and Scala, Eclipse CDT for C/C++, and EclipsePDT for PHP, among others.         10.JQueryQueryis a lightweight, “write less, do more”, JavaScript library. Thepurpose of jQuery is to make it much easier to use JavaScript on your website. jQuerytakes a lot of common tasks that require many lines of JavaScript code toaccomplish, and wraps them into methods that you can call with a single line ofcode.jQuery also simplifies a lot of the complicated things from JavaScript,like AJAX calls and DOM manipulation.ThejQuery library contains the following features: HTML/DOM manipulation CSS manipulation HTML event methods Effects and animations AJAX UtilitiesTip: In addition,jQuery has plugins for almost any task out there.

Why jQuery?Thereare lots of other JavaScript frameworks out there, but jQuery seems to be themost popular, and also the most extendable.Manyof the biggest companies on the Web use jQuery, such as: Google Microsoft IBM   11.MySQLMySQL is a Relational DataBase ManagementSystem (RDBMS).RDBMS means R–DB–MS.- DB stands forDatabase, a repository for the information store.i.           The data in a database is organized into tables, and each table isorganized into rows and columns.

ii.           Each row in a table is called a record. A record may containsseveral pieces (called fields) of information, and each column in a table isknown as a field.-MS stands forManagement System, the software that allows you to insert, retrieve, modify, ordelete records.-R stands forRelational, indicates a particular kind of DBMS that is good at relatinginformation stored in one table to information stored in another table bylooking for elements common to each of them. Relational DBMS has the advantageof efficient storage, and retrieval mechanisms for data, and uses normalizationprocess during design of RDBMS. Database normalization process is beyond thescope of this article, and several references are available.

MySQL operates using client/serverarchitecture in which the server runs on the machine containing the databasesand clients connect to the server over a network. The server operating systemsis usually a Linux (like Redhat 9.0 etc.) or Windows 2000 operating system.Typically mySQL is supported on Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Red Hat FedoraLinux, and Debian Linux, and others. As with any other client/serverapplication, MySQL is a multi-user database system, meaning several users canaccess the database simultaneously. Here:- The server(MySQL server) listens for client requests coming in over the network andaccesses database contents according to those requests and provides that to theclients.

– Clients areprograms that connect to the database server and issue queries in apre-specified format. MySQL is compatible with the standards based SQL (SQLstands for Structured Query Language) language. The client program may contactthe server programmatically (meaning a program call the server duringexecution) or manually. For example, when you are issuing commands over atelnet session to a MySQL server, you are issuing the requests to the server bytyping commands at your command prompt manually.

On the other hand, if you haveinput some data (say your credit card information on the Internet towardspurchase of some goods) in a form, and the form is processed by using a serverside program, then the MySQL server is contacted programmatically. This isoften the case in credit card approvals, member subscriptions etc.Features of MySQL1. Speed:Ofcourse, the speed at which a server sideprogram runs depends primarily on the server hardware. Given that the serverhardware is optimal, MySQL runs very fast. It supports clustered servers fordemanding applications.

2. Ease of use:MySQL is a high-performance, relativelysimple database system. From the beginning, MySQL has typically beenconfigured, monitored, and managed from the command line.

However, severalMySQL graphical interfaces are available as described below:i.           MySQL Administrator: This tool makes it possible foradministrators to set up, evaluate, and tune their MySQL database server. Thisis intended as a replacement for mysqladmin.ii.

           MySQL Query Browser: Provides database developers and operatorswith a graphical database operation interface. It is especially useful forseeing multiple query plans and result sets in a single user interface.iii.           Configuration Wizard: Administrators can choose from a predefinedlist of optimal settings, or create their own.iv.           MySQL System Tray: Provides Windows-based administrators a singleview of their MySQL instance, including the ability to start and stop theirdatabase servers.3. Cost:MySQL is available free of cost.

MySQL  is a”Open Source” database. MySQL is part of LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL,PHP / Perl / Python) environemtn, a fast growing open source enterprisesoftware stack. More and more companies are using LAMP as an alternative toexpensive proprietary software stacks because of its lower cost, reliability,and documentation.4.Query Language Support:MySQL understands standards based SQL(Structured Query Language).5.Capability :Many clients can connect to the server atthe same time. Clients can use multiple database simultaneously.

You can access MySQL using several interfaces such as command-line clients, Webbrowsers.6.Connectivity and security: MySQL is fully networked, anddatabase can be accessed from anywhere on the Internet, so you can share yourdata with  anyone, anywhere. The connectivity could be achieved withWindows programs by using ODBC drivers. By using the ODBC connector to MySQL,any ODBC-aware client application (for example, Microsoft Office, reportwriters, Visual Basic) can connect to MySQL.7.Portability: MySQL runs on many varieties of UNIX, aswell as on other non-UNIX systems, such as Windows and OS/2.

MySQL runs onhardware from home PCs to high-end server. MySQL can be installed on WindowsXP, Windows Server 2003, Red Hat Fedora Linux, Debian Linux, and others.MySQL Tools1. A SQL server: This is an engine whichprovides access to your databases.2.

Client programs for accessing the server:A program allows you to enter queries directly and view results.3. A client library for writing your ownprograms: You can write your own programs into the client library using C.

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