1. HTMLHTMLis used for writing webpages. It’s a scripting language.HTML standsfor Hypertexts Markup Language.
Hypertext is a text that works as a link. Markup Language is a way of writing your layout information in documents or pages.An HTML document is aplain text file that contains text in structured form with an extension .
htm or.html. When any browser opens an HTML file, Browser looks for HTML codes in thetext files and uses them to change layouts, insert images, or create links to navigateto other pages.Hence HTML tags can be written in any simple text editor.
We can create our pages using some popular HTML editors, such as notepad, notepad++,sublime editor, FrontPage or Dreamweaver. Syntax:
- Ordered list
- Unordred bulleted list
CSS is aseparate language with its own syntax. Syntax of Syntax:· Everystatement must have a selector and a declaration. The declaration comesimmediately after the selector and is contained in a pair of curly braces.· The declaration is one or more propertiesseparated by semicolons.· Eachproperty has a property name followed by a colon and then the value for thatproperty. There are many different types of values, but any given property canonly take certain values as set down in the specification.
· Sometimes aproperty can take a number of values, as in the font-family. The values in thelist should be separated by a comma and a space. · Sometimesa value will have a unit as well as the actual value, as in the 1.3em. We mustnot put a space between the value and its unit.· As with HTML, white space can be used to makeyour style sheet easier to read and write Use of CSS:· Betterdownloading speed· Makesbetter pages accessible· Reducesthe time spent for maintaining and changing the site· Multiplestyles will cascade into one 3.
PHPPHP is server side scripting system – PHP stands for”PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor” – Syntax based on Perl, Java, and C –Very good for creating dynamic content – Powerful, but somewhat risky! – If youwant to focus on one system for dynamic content, this is a good one to choose.The Zend FrameworkA PHP Web Framework is acollection of classes which helps to develop a web application. Zend is one ofthe most popular PHP framework. It is an open-source MVC framework forrapidly developing, modern web applications.
Zend Framework has several looselycoupled components, so it is referred to as “Component Library”. Zend Frameworkprovides any PHP stack and Zend server to run Zend framework applications.Zend Studio is an IDEthat includes features to integrate with Zend Framework.
It provides MVC viewand code generation. The current Zend framework 3.0 includes new componentssuch as JSON RPC server, a XML to JSON converter, PSR-7 functionality, andcompatibility with PHP 7.Zend Framework 2 is anopen source framework for developing web applications and services using PHP5.3+. Zend Framework 2 uses 100% object oriented code and utilizes most of thenew features of PHP 5.
3, namely Namespaces, Lambda Functions and Closures.Zend Framework 2 evolvedfrom Zend Framework 1, a successful PHP framework with over 15 milliondownloads. Zend Server has a free community version and a commercial version.Zend Framework FeaturesSome of the salientfeatures of Zend Framework is as follows ? Pure object oriented web application framework Advanced MVC implementation Supports multi databases including PostgreSQL, SQLite etc., Simple cloud API Session management Data encryption Flexible URI Routing Zend provides RESTful API development support. Code reusable and easier to maintain.Why Zend Framework?What makes the ZendFramework one of the premier frameworks used by PHP developers is that – itprovides clean and stable code complete with intellectual property rights.
Italso makes programming easier. It is fast, easy to learn and convenientframework. Zend supports strong cryptography tools and password hashingtechniques.
It is at the root of the DOM tree. It also provides us witha number of methods for searching for other nodes in the document.Selecting elements:· Document.getElementById;· document.getElementsByClassName· document.getElementsByTagNameDOM ElementContents· element.
innerHTML: This property represents the HTML within the element· element.textContent:The plain text within the elementExample:The following code on execution create 4 objects inthe DOMAnd the 4 objects can be accessed as given below:document.getElementById(“paragraph1”);document.getElementByTagname(“html”);document.getElementByTagname(“head”);document.
6. XMLXML is a markup language similar to HTML. It standsfor Extensible Markup Language and is a W3C recommended specification as ageneral purpose markup language. This means, unlike other markup languages, XMLis not predefined so you must define your own tags. The primary purpose of thelanguage is the sharing of data across different systems, such as the Internet. XML extensible Markup Language:XML allows you to create your own self descriptivetags, or language that suits your application. XML carries the data and doesnot present it.
It is a public standard.DTD: A DTD is a description of all the elementsthat are permitted in any document that you make using that DTD. A DTD definesthe elements in the document and contains the set of permissions by which youmay include certain elements within a given document. In a DTD for a simplememo, one would expect titles, paragraphs, and subjects, but not glossaries,tables of contents, numbered lists and the like. A DTD corresponds to the kindof document a reader or user would expect.An XML attribute may be included with element declarations.
XMLAttributes are name/value pairs that may be associated with the element. XMLattributes may be used to control some characteristics of the element. In themarkup document attributes are used with the following form:
An HTTP session is initiated by a Web browsereach time you visit a website. While each page visitconstitutes an individual session, the term is often used to describe theentire time you spend on the website. For example, when you purchase an item onan ecommerce site, the entireprocess may be described as a session, even though you navigated throughseveral different pages.Another example of a client/server session isan email or SMTP session. 7. XAMPPXAMPP stands for Cross-Platform (X), Apache (A), MySQL(M), PHP (P) and Perl (P). It is a simple, lightweight Apache distribution thatmakes it extremely easy for developers to create a local web server for testingpurposes.
Everything you need to set up a web server – server application(Apache), database (MySQL), and scripting language (PHP) – is included in asimple extractable file. XAMPP is also cross-platform, which means it worksequally well on Linux, Mac and Windows. Since most actual web serverdeployments use the same components as XAMPP, it makes transitioning from alocal test server to a live server is extremely easy as well. 8.
Web2.0Web 2.0, a phrase is a cluster term for the new phaseof World Wide Web, which was coined by O?Reilly and Media live International in2003 and popularized by the first Web 2.0 conference in 2004.Web 2.
0 CharacteristicsAfter emerging of Web 2.0, it is being vastly usedbecause of its wide range of variety and very attractive features. Descriptivelist of Web 2.0 tools are endless even though we can say that the newgeneration of Internet approximately uses its tools.
Web 2.0 InnovationsAjax, the rich internet application technique hasprompted the development of web-sites that copy personal computer applicationslike (M.S.
Office package) word processing, the spreadsheet, and slide-showpresentation while some wiki sites replicate many features of PC authoringapplications.Web 2.0 ModelBefore the origin of Web 2.0, Web 1.0 was known as aterm ?Web? that was like warehouse of information and static content. Then, astime passes, with the advancement of technology and software, a huge amount ofdata and content became dynamic and returning custom results to users.
The Characteristics and Design of Web 2.0As the Internet world is changing very swiftly, nowthe users look for more than a web site instead of simple text and picturebased website. They want to be more interactive to the world by sharing theirviews; they want to show their talents in terms of their new creation to theglobal world. For fulfilling these necessities, a new concept was born thathave all-in-one technology in itself and it is called Web 2.0.Characteristics of simple Web 2.
0 WebsiteBefore making any Web 2.0 site, the programmers mustkeep in mind the following things, which suits the Web 2.0 technology and thesite runs smoothly on the web. 9.
ii. Each row in a table is called a record. A record may containsseveral pieces (called fields) of information, and each column in a table isknown as a field.-MS stands forManagement System, the software that allows you to insert, retrieve, modify, ordelete records.-R stands forRelational, indicates a particular kind of DBMS that is good at relatinginformation stored in one table to information stored in another table bylooking for elements common to each of them. Relational DBMS has the advantageof efficient storage, and retrieval mechanisms for data, and uses normalizationprocess during design of RDBMS. Database normalization process is beyond thescope of this article, and several references are available.
MySQL operates using client/serverarchitecture in which the server runs on the machine containing the databasesand clients connect to the server over a network. The server operating systemsis usually a Linux (like Redhat 9.0 etc.) or Windows 2000 operating system.Typically mySQL is supported on Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Red Hat FedoraLinux, and Debian Linux, and others. As with any other client/serverapplication, MySQL is a multi-user database system, meaning several users canaccess the database simultaneously. Here:- The server(MySQL server) listens for client requests coming in over the network andaccesses database contents according to those requests and provides that to theclients.
– Clients areprograms that connect to the database server and issue queries in apre-specified format. MySQL is compatible with the standards based SQL (SQLstands for Structured Query Language) language. The client program may contactthe server programmatically (meaning a program call the server duringexecution) or manually. For example, when you are issuing commands over atelnet session to a MySQL server, you are issuing the requests to the server bytyping commands at your command prompt manually.
On the other hand, if you haveinput some data (say your credit card information on the Internet towardspurchase of some goods) in a form, and the form is processed by using a serverside program, then the MySQL server is contacted programmatically. This isoften the case in credit card approvals, member subscriptions etc.Features of MySQL1. Speed:Ofcourse, the speed at which a server sideprogram runs depends primarily on the server hardware. Given that the serverhardware is optimal, MySQL runs very fast. It supports clustered servers fordemanding applications.
2. Ease of use:MySQL is a high-performance, relativelysimple database system. From the beginning, MySQL has typically beenconfigured, monitored, and managed from the command line.
However, severalMySQL graphical interfaces are available as described below:i. MySQL Administrator: This tool makes it possible foradministrators to set up, evaluate, and tune their MySQL database server. Thisis intended as a replacement for mysqladmin.ii.
MySQL Query Browser: Provides database developers and operatorswith a graphical database operation interface. It is especially useful forseeing multiple query plans and result sets in a single user interface.iii. Configuration Wizard: Administrators can choose from a predefinedlist of optimal settings, or create their own.iv. MySQL System Tray: Provides Windows-based administrators a singleview of their MySQL instance, including the ability to start and stop theirdatabase servers.3. Cost:MySQL is available free of cost.
MySQL is a”Open Source” database. MySQL is part of LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL,PHP / Perl / Python) environemtn, a fast growing open source enterprisesoftware stack. More and more companies are using LAMP as an alternative toexpensive proprietary software stacks because of its lower cost, reliability,and documentation.4.Query Language Support:MySQL understands standards based SQL(Structured Query Language).5.Capability :Many clients can connect to the server atthe same time. Clients can use multiple database simultaneously.
You can access MySQL using several interfaces such as command-line clients, Webbrowsers.6.Connectivity and security: MySQL is fully networked, anddatabase can be accessed from anywhere on the Internet, so you can share yourdata with anyone, anywhere. The connectivity could be achieved withWindows programs by using ODBC drivers. By using the ODBC connector to MySQL,any ODBC-aware client application (for example, Microsoft Office, reportwriters, Visual Basic) can connect to MySQL.7.Portability: MySQL runs on many varieties of UNIX, aswell as on other non-UNIX systems, such as Windows and OS/2.
MySQL runs onhardware from home PCs to high-end server. MySQL can be installed on WindowsXP, Windows Server 2003, Red Hat Fedora Linux, Debian Linux, and others.MySQL Tools1. A SQL server: This is an engine whichprovides access to your databases.2.
Client programs for accessing the server:A program allows you to enter queries directly and view results.3. A client library for writing your ownprograms: You can write your own programs into the client library using C.