1 INTRODUCTIONThe vibration control method can beclassified into active control, passive control, hybrid control, semi-active control.Among these The passive control is more studied and applied to the existingbuildings than the others due to its advantages like , a passive vibrationcontrol system that does not require any external power source for itsoperation and utilizes the motion of the structure to develop the controlforces. Dampers are placed throughout a structure toabsorb either kinetic or strain energy transmitted from the ground into theprimary system. Damping instructures can significantly reduce the displacement and accelerationresponses, and decrease theshear forces, along the height of buildings. Energy dissipation in buildingscan be confined mainly to supplemental dampers. Damage to the building can belimited to supplemental dampers which are easier to replace than structuralcomponents.
2. LITERATUREREVIEW –A. METALLIC DAMPER Metallic damper also called as the metallic yieldingenergy dissipation device resist the imposed loads act on the structure during seismic event. The structural response can be reduced whensubjected to wind and earthquake by mounting metallic yield damper into thebuildings, thereby reduces energy-dissipating demand on primary structuralmembers and minimizes possible structural damage. Its effectiveness and lowcost are now well recognized and extensively tested in the past in civilengineering. The MYDs are mainly made of some special metal or alloy materialand is easy to be yielded and have good performance of energy dissipation whenit services in the structure which suffered by seismic events. Fig.
1 Metallic yield damperThe metallic yield damper is one type of displacement-correlated andpassive energy dissipation damper. First hysteric damper were implemented by Skinneret al, (1980) the metallic dampers are made up of mild steel plates. The vaststudy is going on different metallic damper and many on them are currently inapplication. X- Plate damper is one type of metallic damper made up of group ofplates, its mechanism is more useful during earthquake, Pujari and Bakre, (2011)investigated the seismiceffectiveness of an XPD as a seismicprotective system for industrial piping systems. They studied seismic performance of apiping system under important parametric variation of the damper properties for an industrial piping system under real earthquake ground motions and the effect of X-plate damper tocontrol the seismic response. Thereexist optimal combinations of the properties of an XPD for which maximum energyis dissipated by the XPD in the controlled piping system.
The energy dissipatedin the piping system is dependent on the thickness of the XPD and the inputground motion. F.Nateghi-E et al, (2008) Investigatethe behaviour of filled accordion Metallic damper FMAD, as asupplemental passive energy absorption device for seismic design and seismicretrofitting of structures. Application of the FMAD in base isolation andchevron bracing in frame stories.
A hysteretic system including of accordionthin-walled metallic tube has been suggested for this damper. Finite elementsmodel and nonlinear dynamic analysis have been used in their studies; theyfound that Accordion metallic damper can be used for retrofitting the existingstructures against the earthquake. Raul Oscar Curadelli and Jorge Daniel Riera (2004) investigate the effectiveness ofmetallic dampers in building under seismic excitation. It proved that seismicretrofitting and new design of frame building structure, external energydissipation system may be advantageously used.
In 1977 first time Robinson W.H.and Tucker A. G. did the experimental study on lead extrusion damper.
Thereafter (1993) W. J cousins and T.E. Porritt suggest some improvement in leadextrusion damper. The lead extrusion damper proved efficient at differenttemperature. The characteristic of lead extrusion damper have not been affected with the increased number ofcycle. C. C.
Patel (2017) investigatethe response behaviour of two parallel structures coupled by lead extrusion damperand found effective in seismic response reduction of adjacent structure. B. FRICTION DAMPER Frictiondamper is one of the simple and inexpensive types of damper. Friction damperconsist of series of steel plates which are specially treated to develop mostreliable friction. Friction damper utilizes the mechanism of solid frictionthat develops between two solid bodies sliding relative Fig 2.Friction damperto oneanother to provide desired energy dissipation. Plates are clamped together withbolts and allowed to slip at predetermined load. The performance of friction damper is notaffected by temperature, and stiffness degradation against aging.
Pall et al (1979) conducted static anddynamic test on verity of sliding elements with different surface treatments. Friction damper slips at optimum load and dissipate major portion ofseismic energy during the seismic event. In 1987 Filiatrault and Cherrystates some limitation of Palls friction damper that Palls damper was onlyvalid if slip during every cycle. They proposed adetailed macroscopic model using brake lining pads at intersection of crossbraces which improve the physical properties of damper. Some alternate friction damper designs areproposed in some resent literature. Roik et al., (1988) investigate the use ofthree stage friction grip elements.
The recent friction damper manufactured byFluor Daniel known1 as EDR i.e. Energy Dissipating restraint. It consists ofsteel compression wedges and bronze friction wedges to transform the axialspring force into normal pressure acting outward on the cylinder wall. In 1992 Suzuki et al., investigated the performance of friction damper on pipingsystem.
In 2006 bi-directly interaction of friction force was suggested byBakre et al., has significant effects on response of thepiping on friction support. In 2001 Y.
L. Xu et.al,. investigate the use ofsemi active friction damper in to control the response of wind exited trusstower. That was the first known attempt comparedwith passive friction dampers, the semi-active friction dampers are more robustand versatile for improving both serviceability and strength performances ofwind excited large truss towers. In 2002 Imad H Mualla investigates theperformance of steel frames with new friction damper during seismic event.
The application of the new FDD presents a feasible alternative tothe conventional ductility-based earthquake-resistant design both for newconstruction and for upgrading existing structures. A.V. Bhaskarao and R.
S. Jangid (2005) did the seismic analysisof connected structure with friction damper. Ceredic Marsh (2000) investigated theapplication of friction in conjunction with rigid structural frames. Both in steel and concrete it gives the mosteconomical protection against seismic activity for framed medium-risebuildings.
. Continues study is going improvement of friction damper and their utilization. C. VISCOELASTICDAMPERViscoelastic damper includes viscoelasticsolid damper and viscoelastic fluid damper. In 1969 Mahmoodi presented theconcept of vicoelastic damper. Fig 3 Visco Elastic Damper Viscoelasticdamper comprises two viscoelastic layers bonded between three parallel rigidsurface. In 1970 this type of damper was used in New York for controlling windvibration in twin towers of world trade centre. The experimental and analyticalstudy of Zhang said that viscoelastic damper can reduce the response in steelstructure effectively.
Seismic application of VED begins in 1993 for a seismicretrofit project of 13-story Santa Clara County building in San Jose, A fullscale vibration test was performed by Lai et al., (1995) design procedure fordamper was developed by scaling up the size of viscoelastic material. Viscous damping walls were recently used for aseismic protection in newly constructed SUT- building in Shizuka city, Japan asdescribed by Miyazaki and Mitsusaka (1992) .
Total 170 damping walls areemployed within the steel frame. Based on time history analysis the dampingwalls reduce response by 70-80%.. K.C. Chang et al.
, (1988) investigate on theseismic analysis and design of structure with viscoelastic damper. the designprocedure used by them proves economic and safe alternative for seismicresistant structure under seismic design regulation. Lin and chopra in 2003 studied the response ofone story system with viscoelastic damper attached to flexible braces and fluidviscous damper attached to rigid chevron braces. They showed that asymmetricsystem with this damper can be estimated with sufficient accuracy for design. BSamali et al,.
(2006) investigated the uses of viscoelastic damper for reducingwind and earthquake forces. Examples of earlier installations were givensome detail to clearly demonstrate the effectiveness and potential ofviscoelastic damper as viable, cost effective and maintenance free dampersystem to control the motion of dynamically sensitive structures subjected toenvironmental loads. M. P.
Singh et al,. did the seismic analysis of structure withviscoelastic damper on mathematical model. It seen that VE damper effective incontrol of seismic response of structure.
D. VISCOUS DAMPER-Viscous damperworks on fluid flow through orifice. By adding fluid viscous dampers, theenergy input from a transient is absorbed. Fluid damping technology wasvalidated for seismic use by extensive testing in the period 1990-1993.In 2003Robert Mcnamara and Douglas Taylor investigate the application of fluid viscousdamper in high rise structure to suppress the anticipated wind induced acceleration.
Fig 4Viscous damper Theapplication of viscous damper proved very cost effective. YukihiroTokuda and Kenzo Taga (2008) worked onstructure in which vicious damper installed in basement soft story. The paperintroduce in practical use of viscous damper.
In 2012 D Naarkhede and R.Sinha did the experiment to evaluate the performance of viscous damper forshock loads. They discuss the mathematical formulation and relative performanceof structure subjected to short duration pulse excitation. SamueleInfanti et al,. Described the technology of viscous damper in high risebuilding.
Their study show that viscousdampers can be effectively used in different configurations to reduce theresponse of high-rise buildings to wind and earthquake In 2015 Jinaxing chen et al,. investigated the use of viscous damper in high risestructure for seismic response control. The seismic responses ofthe structure with viscous dampers are studied by time-history analysis. Theinvestigation result showed that viscous dampers substantially reduce thestructural dynamic response. A Ravitheja (2016) investigated the seismic evaluation of multistory RCbuilding with and without fluid Viscous Damper.
The research show that viscousdamper effectively reduce the building response by selecting optimum damping coefficient. CONCLUSIONThe use ofseismic control system has increased in these resent years but selecting the bestdamper for reducing vibration in structure in seismic event is necessary. Thecontrolling reduces damage significantly by increasing the structural safety,serviceability and prevents the building form collapse during the earthquake. Inthis paper the basic concept of passive seismic response control devices ismentioned and their resent development and application are discussed.
Theexperimental and analytical investigate carried out by various richer clearlydemonstrate that the seismic control method has potential to improve theseismic performance of structure.