1. Ricciardelli, L., McCabe, M., Williams, R. and Thompson, J. (2007). The role of ethnicity and culture in body image and disordered eating among males. online Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272735807000372 Accessed 23 Jan. 2018.
This study examines the differences between man from other cultures with White man. The other groups include Blacks, Hispanic Americans, Asians, Native Americans, Pacific Islanders, and men from Middle Eastern countries. Overall, the result shows White males is less interested in extreme body change method and binge eating than other group of cultures. On the other hand, there is no evidence which sum up the nature of body image relates to the different cultures. The researchers used mediating and/or moderating variables such as body build, media exposure, lean body ideal,… to explain the inconsistencies. The research article is reliable and trustworthy but is a little out of date (2007) considering the rapid changes in the use of digital media over the last ten years. Having said that, it is still very relevant to my research question topic because it specifically covers the comparison between males from different cultures, and, therefore, I will use it for my review and try to supplement with more current research articles.
2. Paulk, A., Dowd, D., Zayac, R., Eklund, A. and Kildare, C. (2014). The Relationship Between Culture, Geographic Region, and Gender on Body Image: A Comparison of College Students in the Southeast and Pacific Northwest Regions of the United States. Sociological Spectrum, 34(5), pp.442-452.
It is true that Body image can predict shows significant psychological and physical outcomes. In this study, the researchers explored the differences in body image based on geographic region in U.S. A survey was hold for 1365 student from different universities in 2 regions: Southeast and Pacific Northwest, includes their gender, body image and geographic region. The researchers found that women have poorer body image than men, and teenagers from Pacific Northwest have greater body image than that of Southeast region. The result also reported that there is a noticeable interaction effects for gender and geographic region with female from the Southeast has the poorest body image of any group. This study is reliable and trustworthy with information clearly about cultural differences in body image. I will use it to support my review for my research question.
3. Brockhoff, M., Mussap, A., Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, M., Mellor, D., Skouteris, H., McCabe, M. and Ricciardelli, L. (2016). Cultural differences in body dissatisfaction: Japanese adolescents compared with adolescents from China, Malaysia, Australia, Tonga, and Fiji. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 19(4), pp.385-394.
Body image also affect body dissatisfaction. This study examines the cultural differences in body dissatisfaction between Japanese teenagers and teenagers from other nation which are China, Malaysia, Australia, Tonga and Fiji. A survey used identical body image measures was hold for adolescents age 12-18: 133 females and 99 males from Japan compared with 1233 females and 1149 males from other countries. The researchers found out that although Japanese youngsters has among the lowest body mass index (BMI), they has the highest levels of body dissatisfaction. Moreover, researchers also found that Japanese adolescents cultural identification with modern Japanese values have a connection with the increase of body dissatisfaction. The study is reliable and trustworthy, with the latest information (2016), and it is relevant to my research question. I will use it for my review and try to supplement with more current research articles.