1.1 the market. 1.2 Statement of the Problem:

1.1 Introduction: The
main objective of every organization is to stay in business and maintain
stability, produce products or provide services that are useful to customers,
and offer growth for its members. Employees in service organizations and mainly
those who have regular contacts with customers usually are representatives of
both the organization and its products or services to the customers at the
point of contact. The quality of the service and the satisfaction of the
customers will be an evaluated by the entire service experience. Employees who
are empowered and motivated in an organization can either portray a positive or
negative image to the customers depending on how they are being treated in
their organization and how motivated they are. Therefore, a satisfied customer
and employee are important to the organization. It is the duty of the human resources
team to create a system that would generate satisfaction for the customers and
employees. The employees have a major role to play in determining whether a
customer would enjoy the experience or contact one of the competitors for a
better experience, business leaders and managers on almost every level agree
that It is a must to keep the work environment motivated and happy as it
affects how an organization will do in the market.

Statement of the Problem: Employees wellbeing and satisfaction is not
being taken into consideration here in Jordan and that leads to lack of
motivation for many employees and therefore low work performance, It’s a
problem that needs to be looked at and solved because with satisfied employees the
organization will have higher performance and will create devoted employees with
passion which will eventually benefit the organization by gaining more customers
due to the increased quality of the organization’s service/product that will continue
to attract more customers.
This research will mainly focus on the theories of motivation and the relationship
between employees motivation and their performance in addition to the factors
that create motivation for employees and discuss the findings of a questionnaire
that determines what are the most important factor that leads to employee
motivation here in Jordan

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of Motivation: Motivation
is a something that is widely researched due to its importance
in our lives specially in the workplace. Many authors and researches defined motivation
differently throughout history for example Glueck said that ” Motivation is the inner state that energizes channels
and sustains human behavior.” In Encyclopedia of Management it is said
that ” Motivation refers to the degree of readiness of an organism to
pursue some designed goal and implies the determination of the nature and locus
of forces inducing the degree of readiness.”
while Joe Kelly defined it as “A process where by needs instigate behavior directed towards the goals
that can satisfy those needs.” The most used
definition in the business world is the one defined by Rudolf and Kleiner as “The development of a desire within an employee
to perform a task to his/her greatest ability based on that individual’s own

Theories of Motivation: Many
researches were conducted about Motivation and many theories were created which
really influenced and still influence how managers treat their employees and
try to motivate them to improve the quality of their work, motivation theories were mainly developed around 1950’s. Three main
theories were made during this period: Herzberg’s two factors theory, Maslow’s
hierarchy of needs theory, Theory X and Theory Y. Herzberg’s theory
of motivation (Two factor theory). According to Staw Herzberg is the first
person to distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, that
distinction helped managers so  much to
deal with their employees, he distinguished in his theory between motivators
and hygiene factors, he believes that factors are either motivators
hygiene factors but never both, motivators are intrinsic motivational factors
such as appreciation, job atmosphere, rewards, promotion whereas the hygiene
factors are extrinsic motivational factors such as job equipments,
job security and salary. Abraham Maslow is
well known for introducing the Hierarchy of Needs Theory, This theory is a
classical representation of human motivation. It is based on the assumption
that there is a hierarchy of five needs within each individual and the urgency
of these needs varies, these five needs are physiological needs, Safety needs,
Social needs, Esteem needs, Self actualization need. Douglas McGregor created
Theory X and Theory Y suggesting two aspects of human behavior at work, or in
other words, two different views of employees: one of them is negative, called
as Theory X and the other is positive, so called as Theory Y, According to
McGregor the perception of managers on the nature of individuals is based on
various assumptions, those are all just debatable theories.

Two-Factor Theory of Motivation: In 1959, Frederick Herzberg, a behavioral
scientist proposed a two-factor theory or the motivator-hygiene theory.
He analyzed  the responses of 200
accountants and engineers who were asked about their positive and negative
feelings about their work and found 2 factors that influence employee motivation
and satisfaction: Motivator factors these are factors that lead to satisfaction
and motivate employees to work harder, Examples: enjoying your work, feeling recognized
and career progression. Hygiene factors these factors can lead to
dissatisfaction and a lack of motivation if they are absent. Examples: salary,
company policies, benefits, relationships with managers and co-workers. There are
some job factors that consequence in satisfaction while there are other job
factors that prevent dissatisfaction. According to Herzberg, the opposite of
“Satisfaction” is “No satisfaction” and the opposite of
“Dissatisfaction” is “No Dissatisfaction”. While motivator
factors increase employee satisfaction and motivation, the absence of them
factors don’t necessarily cause dissatisfaction. Likewise, the presence of
hygiene factors don’t  appear to increase
satisfaction and motivation but their absence cause an increase in

Two-Factor theory states that the managers should work upon guaranteeing the sufficiency
of the hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction and make sure that the
work is stimulating and rewarding so that the employees are motivated to work
and perform harder and better. This theory focuses on job enrichment as a way
to motivate the employees. The job must use the employee’s skills and abilities
to the maximum as focusing on the motivational factors will improve
work-quality, However motivation levels and employee needs can
differ according to geographical location and different priorities that differ for
each individual depending on various circumstances, As Paul Herbert states that
benefits packages should not be one size fits all “For true engagement to
occur in a company you must first remove the issues that cause dissatisfaction,
the baseline benefits offered by the company that satisfy the hygiene needs of
the employee. Then you must focus on the individual and what they want out of
their association with your enterprise.” But fortunately that problem can
easily be solved by conducting a research in the organization or distributing a
questionnaire and seeing what employees are mostly motivated by in a certain
organization in order to fulfill their needs and make them satisfied.


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