1.1 Introduction: Themain objective of every organization is to stay in business and maintainstability, produce products or provide services that are useful to customers,and offer growth for its members. Employees in service organizations and mainlythose who have regular contacts with customers usually are representatives ofboth the organization and its products or services to the customers at thepoint of contact.
The quality of the service and the satisfaction of thecustomers will be an evaluated by the entire service experience. Employees whoare empowered and motivated in an organization can either portray a positive ornegative image to the customers depending on how they are being treated intheir organization and how motivated they are. Therefore, a satisfied customerand employee are important to the organization. It is the duty of the human resourcesteam to create a system that would generate satisfaction for the customers andemployees. The employees have a major role to play in determining whether acustomer would enjoy the experience or contact one of the competitors for abetter experience, business leaders and managers on almost every level agreethat It is a must to keep the work environment motivated and happy as itaffects how an organization will do in the market.1.
2Statement of the Problem: Employees wellbeing and satisfaction is notbeing taken into consideration here in Jordan and that leads to lack ofmotivation for many employees and therefore low work performance, It’s aproblem that needs to be looked at and solved because with satisfied employees theorganization will have higher performance and will create devoted employees withpassion which will eventually benefit the organization by gaining more customersdue to the increased quality of the organization’s service/product that will continueto attract more customers.This research will mainly focus on the theories of motivation and the relationshipbetween employees motivation and their performance in addition to the factorsthat create motivation for employees and discuss the findings of a questionnairethat determines what are the most important factor that leads to employeemotivation here in Jordan Definitionof Motivation: Motivationis a something that is widely researched due to its importancein our lives specially in the workplace. Many authors and researches defined motivationdifferently throughout history for example Glueck said that ” Motivation is the inner state that energizes channelsand sustains human behavior.” In Encyclopedia of Management it is saidthat ” Motivation refers to the degree of readiness of an organism topursue some designed goal and implies the determination of the nature and locusof forces inducing the degree of readiness.
“while Joe Kelly defined it as “A process where by needs instigate behavior directed towards the goalsthat can satisfy those needs.” The most useddefinition in the business world is the one defined by Rudolf and Kleiner as “The development of a desire within an employeeto perform a task to his/her greatest ability based on that individual’s owninitiative.” Theories of Motivation: Manyresearches were conducted about Motivation and many theories were created whichreally influenced and still influence how managers treat their employees andtry to motivate them to improve the quality of their work, motivation theories were mainly developed around 1950’s. Three maintheories were made during this period: Herzberg’s two factors theory, Maslow’shierarchy of needs theory, Theory X and Theory Y. Herzberg’s theoryof motivation (Two factor theory).
According to Staw Herzberg is the firstperson to distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, thatdistinction helped managers so much todeal with their employees, he distinguished in his theory between motivatorsand hygiene factors, he believes that factors are either motivatorsorhygiene factors but never both, motivators are intrinsic motivational factorssuch as appreciation, job atmosphere, rewards, promotion whereas the hygienefactors are extrinsic motivational factors such as job equipments,job security and salary. Abraham Maslow iswell known for introducing the Hierarchy of Needs Theory, This theory is aclassical representation of human motivation. It is based on the assumptionthat there is a hierarchy of five needs within each individual and the urgencyof these needs varies, these five needs are physiological needs, Safety needs,Social needs, Esteem needs, Self actualization need. Douglas McGregor createdTheory X and Theory Y suggesting two aspects of human behavior at work, or inother words, two different views of employees: one of them is negative, calledas Theory X and the other is positive, so called as Theory Y, According toMcGregor the perception of managers on the nature of individuals is based onvarious assumptions, those are all just debatable theories.Herzberg’sTwo-Factor Theory of Motivation: In 1959, Frederick Herzberg, a behavioralscientist proposed a two-factor theory or the motivator-hygiene theory.He analyzed the responses of 200accountants and engineers who were asked about their positive and negativefeelings about their work and found 2 factors that influence employee motivationand satisfaction: Motivator factors these are factors that lead to satisfactionand motivate employees to work harder, Examples: enjoying your work, feeling recognizedand career progression. Hygiene factors these factors can lead todissatisfaction and a lack of motivation if they are absent.
Examples: salary,company policies, benefits, relationships with managers and co-workers. There aresome job factors that consequence in satisfaction while there are other jobfactors that prevent dissatisfaction. According to Herzberg, the opposite of”Satisfaction” is “No satisfaction” and the opposite of”Dissatisfaction” is “No Dissatisfaction”. While motivatorfactors increase employee satisfaction and motivation, the absence of themfactors don’t necessarily cause dissatisfaction. Likewise, the presence ofhygiene factors don’t appear to increasesatisfaction and motivation but their absence cause an increase indissatisfaction.
TheTwo-Factor theory states that the managers should work upon guaranteeing the sufficiencyof the hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction and make sure that thework is stimulating and rewarding so that the employees are motivated to workand perform harder and better. This theory focuses on job enrichment as a wayto motivate the employees. The job must use the employee’s skills and abilitiesto the maximum as focusing on the motivational factors will improvework-quality, However motivation levels and employee needs candiffer according to geographical location and different priorities that differ foreach individual depending on various circumstances, As Paul Herbert states thatbenefits packages should not be one size fits all “For true engagement tooccur in a company you must first remove the issues that cause dissatisfaction,the baseline benefits offered by the company that satisfy the hygiene needs ofthe employee.
Then you must focus on the individual and what they want out oftheir association with your enterprise.” But fortunately that problem caneasily be solved by conducting a research in the organization or distributing aquestionnaire and seeing what employees are mostly motivated by in a certainorganization in order to fulfill their needs and make them satisfied.